Collapse of dynasties–a Congress case study

This writer has recently been studying the subject of how empires, regimes and dynasties have collapsed in different parts of the world and in different ages. This is truly a Herculean task and has attracted the attention and energies of much more eminent scholars than yours truly. However, I believe it is necessary to keep at this task and to bring certain perspectives to it that professional historians may not have done fully.

The immediate stimulus for this exercise has been the risible “last moments” symptoms that the current ruling dispensation in India has been displaying. Admittedly, it is not yet the death rattle that we hear but something pretty much resembling it. Moreover, the Congress and its allies have shown such remarkable dexterity in the past to come out of near-death experiences that many observers are still reluctant to certify the desi GOP as a terminal case. 

In fact, the more appropriate focus in our study should be how the Congress has survived so long. How is it that such a tainted, moth-eaten, venal and inefficient system managed to thrive and prosper over the last 7 decades and more, when it should have met its divine maker many times during this period ? Certainly, the old Indian National Congress (INC), which had such a glorious history in its initial five decades, died an inglorious death in 1939 when M.K. Gandhi and his cronies conspired to force out Netaji Subhas after the Tripuri Congress session. Earlier, when Netaji had soundly trounced Gandhi’s candidate Pattabhi Sitaramaiyya to become the Congress President, Gandhi, in an astounding display of pique, lamented that “Pattabhi’s defeat is my defeat”. This was when the INC started its inglorious march to perfidy. The transformation was complete by the late 1940s, when Nehru managed to neutralize Sardar Patel, the last of the true nationalists.

Therefore, we must logically ask the same question that Edward Gibbon posed when he penned his epic treatise, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. In the context of the Italianate ambience of our country these days, this is as appropriate a historical canvas as anything else. What Gibbon could not understand was how the Roman Empire lasted as long as it did, and did not collapse much earlier. These are his words:

The decline of Rome was the natural and inevitable effect of immoderate greatness. Prosperity ripened the principle of decay; the cause of the destruction multiplied with the extent of conquest; and, as soon as time or accident had removed the artificial supports, the stupendous fabric yielded to the pressure of its own weight. The story of the ruin is simple and obvious: and instead of inquiring why the Roman Empire was destroyed we should rather be surprised that it has subsisted for so long.

The only caveat that this writer has is the notion of “immoderate greatness” as applied to the Congress at this juncture. Earlier greatness, yes. But, let us not quibble. The rest of the analogy is accurate; the prosperity of the party and its ruling cabal has certainly “ripened” the decay. And the readers will certainly identify all the other similarities. Some other resemblances from Gibbon’s study are stark and will easily strike a chord in readers today.

Let us spend a little more time on the analogies, with the current equivalents in parentheses. The other reasons cited by Gibbons included the adoption of Christianity (“secularism”) as the official religion, and a “decline in civic virtue”.  The huge cost of maintaining bridges, roads and aqueducts over such a vast territory” (the Indian bureaucracy and other mammoth white elephants of the Indian state) has also been identified as a contributing factor, as has the expense of maintaining enough legions (police, paramilitary and military) to control the empire.

Increases in taxation were also highly unpopular, while increased trade with India and China, through the Silk Route, may have caused a crippling trade imbalance.The rising cost of ever more spectacular gladiatorial games (tamashas and soap-operas of the desi government in the form of various official functions) has also been posited as a theory for the decline. The once-invincible Roman army was weakened by factional fighting and its ranks were diluted by the introduction of large numbers of Germanic tribesmen. One can go on for a long time with these comparisons, but readers will surely be able to see the gist.

While the collapse of the Roman empire provides valuable socio-economic insights, other parallels nearer our times must also be analysed. The French Revolution is the classic model of the overthrow of an utterly despotic, corrupt, decadent and inefficient regime, whose resemblance to the current Indian situation is remarkable.  And it is to this momentous event that we must now turn our attention.

Modern studies of the French Revolution have placed a lot of emphasis on one factor that traditional historians have not fully appreciated. This is the concept of the “de-sanctifying of the monarchy” in the period just before the revolution. For this writer, this is a very interesting perspective. Because, what we are witnessing in recent years in our shores is also the de-sanctifying of the Congress, its “legends” and its “ideology.” Instead of the hagiographies that Indian historians (aided and abetted by utterly venal official institutions like the Indian Council of Historical Research) had produced in the last five decades, there is now a generation of historians and social scientists who are prepared to call the bluff. Admittedly, they still face fierce opposition from the old coterie but they have been increasingly more victorious in the bitter wars that are being waged in Indian academia.

To return to the events in France in the years preceding 1789, what the country saw was a new understanding of what “public good” meant  and the growing belief that “thinking” citizens might seize the state and fundamentally restructure it.  The overall situation was also conducive to a revolution. In theory at least, the country was an absolute monarchy, an increasingly unpopular form of government at the time. In practice, the king’s ability to exercise his theoretically absolute power was constrained by the power and prerogatives of the nobility and the clergy, two  remnants of feudalism that were also detested by ordinary citizens. To add to the instability, the peasants were deeply resentful of the relatively greater privileges enjoyed by the urban population.

The large and growing middle class, as also some of the nobility and the workers, had absorbed the ideology of equality and freedom of the individual, popularized  by scholars and philosophers like  Voltaire, Turgot, Diderot and other theorists of the Enlightenment.  The events in America a few years earlier had proved that the ideals of government structures proposed in the theories of the Enlightenment were plausible and could be put into practice. This coalition of forces and groups attacked the undemocratic nature of the government, pushed for freedom of speech, and challenged the Catholic Church and the prerogatives of the nobles.

If revolutionary ideas could be propagated so successfully in an era where there was neither the net nor electronic media, one can visualize how the situation is currently panning out in our shores and indeed in many other countries. The other resemblance is on the economic front and it would be worthwhile to ponder a bit on this theme. The economic inequalities in pre-Revolutionary France were appalling, as is the case now in India. Some segments of the population, like the nobility and the clergy, were exempted from taxation (it is scarcely necessary to point out the Indian equivalent) and there were private tax collectors who extracted more taxes than the government’s requirement, the additional amount being pocketed by them. “Consumption” taxes (similar to our indirect taxes like excise, VAT and Service Tax) were arbitrary and unequal. All these problems were aggravated by a severe food shortage, particularly that of bread. No need to press the similarities further.

Bread brings us to the unfortunate story of the French Queen, Marie Antoinette, the vastly unpopular Austrian-born wife of the king, Louis XVI. Her notorious “if they can’t get bread, let them eat cake” statement, although universally attributed to her, was not definitively proved. Yet, such was the antipathy of the people of France to their foreign queen, that they were quite willing to believe that the atrocious remark was authentic.  In this country, too, we have had the experience of the loyal courtiers in the Congress making monumentally-asinine pronouncements that more than equal the Austrian woman’s gaffes more than two centuries earlier. And their genuflections and odious displays of servility to their foreign-born chief are faithful replications of what happened in a distant country long ago.

And the foreign empress syndrome brings me to the third case-study in this essay, which is the Russian Revolution of 1917. The social and economic scenario was very similar to that of France in the late 18th century. In 1916, almost 75% of the Russian population comprised peasants who lived and farmed in small villages. Although serfdom (which allowed peasants to be owned and traded by landowners) was theoretically abolished in 1861, their condition had hardly improved. They were given small tracts of land that were barely cultivable and they were obliged to pay the government a sum of money for their “freedom”. The result was widespread indebtedness, poverty and subsistence-farming among the farmers. Large-scale immigration of farmers to urban areas was the natural outcome. Half the farming families had one member at least who had left the village to find other work in the towns. As the central Russian population boomed, land became scarce. The appalling life-standard of the peasants was in sharp contrast to that of the rich landowners, who held 20% of the land in large estates and were often members of the Russian upper class.

In the industrial sector, the situation was equally dismal and here again there are many similarities to the Indian scenario. The industrial revolution came to Russia in the 1890s, much after it had come to western Europe, and the industrial sector, therefore, was not very advanced or extensive. Russia’s cities began to expand and large numbers of peasants moved to the cities to take up new jobs. By the turn of the nineteenth century, millions of Russians were in these tightly-packed and poorly-planned urban conglomerations, experiencing problems like poor and cramped housing, bad wages, and limited rights in their jobs. The government was afraid of the developing urban class, but more afraid of driving foreign investment away by supporting better wages, and, therefore, the country never saw any serious legislation for reforming the awful economic system that prevailed. It should also be stressed that the urban work-force continued to retain close links and ties to their agricultural families.

These workers swiftly began to grow politicised and resented government restrictions on their protests, thus forming a fertile ground for the socialist revolutionaries, who moved between cities and exile in Siberia. In order to try and counter the spread of anti-Tsarist ideology, the government formed legal, but subservient, trade unions to take the place of the banned popular outfits. In 1905, and 1917, heavily-politicised socialist workers played major roles in the national upheavals, although there were many different factions and beliefs under the umbrella of ‘socialism’. To add to this explosive combination, was the criminal mismanagement of the economy by the Tsarist government and the horrendous impact of the First World War, in which the Russian troops suffered mind-boggling casualties.

The Romanov Tsar Nicholas II had a simplistic answer to any popular political upsurge – a return to the seventeenth century of Peter the Great and the resurrection of a late-medieval Russia – instead of reforming and modernizing the system. To add to his woes, he had his wife, the German-born  Tsarina Alexandra, who was a perpetual albatross around his neck. This overview  of another foreign-Empress syndrome is bound to be deeply embarrassing for the factotums in 24 Akbar Road and 10 Janpath. Alexandra was deeply contemptuous of her adopted country and retained strong pan-German feelings. She also firmly believed in autocratic rule and always asserted her husband’s divine right to rule Russia. She was dismissive of those political advisers of the Tsar who were loyal to him. Hysterical, and morbidly suspicious, she hated everyone except her immediate family and a series of crooked or lunatic charlatans, like Rasputin, who offered comfort to her desperate soul.

Suffice to say, that both the foreign-born spouses, Marie Antoinette and Alexandra, were important factors in their spouses meeting violent deaths, when revolutions swept away their respective dynasties and regimes.

While wrapping up this first segment of a continuing analysis of regime changes and end of dynasties, I would like to conclude with a brilliant analysis of systemic changes and their repercussions by the last renaissance figure this country has produced. And I am sure that there will not be more than a minuscule number of readers who will accuse me of quoting Tagore merely because I am a Bengali. Here is the savant in “The Crisis of Civilisation”, written just a few months before he passed away :

If in its place they have established, with baton in hand, a reign of ‘law and order’, in other words a policeman’s rule, such mockery of civilization can claim no respect from us. It is the mission of civilization to bring unity among people and establish peace and harmony. But in unfortunate India, the social fabric is being torn into shreds by unseemly outbursts of hooliganism, daily growing in intensity, right under the very aegis of ‘law and order’

The wheels of fate will some day compel the English to give up their Indian empire. But what kind of India will they leave behind, what stark misery? When the stream of their centuries’ administration runs dry at last, what a waste of mud and filth they will leave behind them!

The sage was, of course, referring to the end of the British Empire in India. However, replace a few words in the above text by others and you will read the titan talking about contemporary times. Now you know why I call him the Renaissance Man.

The author is a Delhi-based analyst in corporate laws and finance.

  • The analysis is excellent. Yet the parallels give me pause. The outcome of the French and Russian revolutions was catastrophic for both societies. Great Terror, lasting decades, flowed through those societies, ending with dictatorships that were unsurpassed in history. The reactions to the collapse of the dynasties made these nations worse off than before. Fortunately, India has balance and sanity. We almost never had successful AND violent revolutions. Our loyalty to Param para and seeking answers within ourselves continues, even if we have a huge Macaulay-ite disconnect today. In spite of the breadth and depth of analysis, i find the premises and analogies too Eurocentric. We should seek precedents from our own history, or at least Asian history.

  • padala madana mohan rao wg cdr retd

    Excellent. Remininent of FRIENDS, COUNTRYMEN LEND ME YOUR EARS, and the outcome of the oratory, dramatized in Julius Ceaser. The scenario and anallysis is indeed indicative of the history of Russia and France, that prospered after the epichopal events in History. and it would never be a ralilty in our Country of Sacrifices , tolerance and Ahimsa! But though, it appears a need of the hour to emulate Countrys that chose a different path and achieved remarkable progress for the People., it may not be an appropriate solution consistent with our culture and heritage.

    • P M Ravindran

      I fail to understand the message ‘it may not be an appropriate solution consistent with our culture and heritage’. There is nothing wrong with our culture and heritage if you take a long term look at it. Of course there have been some distortions during the last few centuries what with Macaulay’s mind manipulation through an education system that was devised to revere colonists and serve them as clerks and the Gandhian ahimsa as a weapon for freedom struggle which is as stupid and unnatural as it could get. The nature’s law is as simple and clear as survival of the fittest and in he human context this fitness is not limited to merely physical but more as is manipulation, cheating etc too!

  • Mohinder Rawat

    A heartfelt thanks to the portal and to the author, Jay Bhattacharjee, for this riveting article. The social and historical canvas that the writer has drawn for our benefit is fascinating. His insights and perception are a revelation.

  • Thanks for a wonderfully analyzed article Jay da. I remain ever grateful.

  • Maj Gen (Retd.) R.S. Phagura

    A very well researched an enlightening piece of writing. The author has analyzed the historical evidence from allover the world and in such brief words drawn parallel with our current destiny.

    I would like to mention; What about the evidence from our own history? The dynasties had been falling regularly after a period; but they were the dynasties of real monarchs supported by their feudal lords. Here, the ‘dynasty’ refers to virtual royalty and virtual ‘feudal lords’. There is little difference except semantic and superficial. For the real royalty others were meant only to obey and serve – same for the ‘virtual monarchs’. Then also there was a rat-race to enter into the safe and lucrative ‘haven’ of feudal lordship: so did people from all over Persia, Arabia and Central Asia came to the ‘durbars’ of Sultanates, Bahmanis and Mughal kings of India to seek their fortune. In a parallel the present cohort of virtual ‘fortune-seekers’ flock to the present virtual ‘durbars’ for the same purpose. In the same sweep, like in the old monarchies so in the present virtual ‘royal’ dispensation, the common man has been left out to suffer, writhe and wriggle in poverty and deprivation. Those dynasties from our past were set up by charismatic leaders like Qutab-ud-din Aiybak, Husan Gangu and Babar and nurtured by their immediate capable successors. But their decay and final overthrow occurred, among other factors, from lack of successive good leadership, poor governance and corruption of all kind.

    The situation in our country was just about the same as during the terminal rule of real royal dynasties. Are our ‘National Characteristics’ to blame? I do wonder!

    • P M Ravindran

      I am sorry to see a negative connotation in the use of national characteristic in the last sentence. I wish Gen Phagura would please clarify. From ‘simple living and high thinking’ to ‘learning by questioning’ and never shunning any fight for justice (all our festivals are occasions for celebrating the victory of good over evil, aren’t they?) I believe that the original national characteristics have much for us to be proud of. Unfortunately .Macaulay and products of his education like Nehru spoiled the show for us. The bright side is that the majority of our population had not been affected by their scheming and the light has always been their at the end of the tunnel to goad the right thinking citizens and soldiers to trudge on!

  • satish sharma

    I have read French and Russian history and could see a parallel with India……but the comparison of foreign origin queens with ours is really amusing and interesting

  • Nitin Bhandarkar

    Entirely agree with Cyrus Katrak. This article made my day – anything else I say will sound like a hyperbole. What a powerful pen this author has ! My only caveat – he seems to take long sabbaticals between his articles. I jest, of course, but I do want to read more of his studies.

  • Cyrus Katrak

    Yet another scintillating essay by this author. Brings out facets that are most interesting. And the whole analysis is structured in such a beautiful and insightful manner.

  • GPS

    Dear Sir

    I hope to learn more. Please write in detail.