We’ll discuss Puruṣa and Vāk in two sections. However, that is only for structuring the content, there is no difference between them.
Creation through Puruṣa
Yajurveda’s Taittiriya Aranyaka (10:24:1) states that Purusha is Rudra.
“puruśō vai rudraḥ ||” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1)
“Lord Rudra is the Purusha”.
Also, Kaushitaki Brahmana of Rig Veda calls Lord Rudra as having arisen standing in his form of a thousand headed and thousand footed cosmic form.
“tata.udatiṣṭhat.sahasra.akṣaḥ.sahasra.pāt |” (Kaushitaki Brahmana 6:1:13)
“There arisen the overpowering figure having a thousand eyes (heads) and a thousand feet”.
This clearly says Rudra has a thousand heads and thousand limbs. Therefore it should be clear now that the Purusha of Vedas is Rudra (Shiva). This is evidence that Purusha Sukta is a hymn on Bhagawan Rudra. Purusha Suktam tells us that this entire creation is just a fourth part of Purusha (Shiva).
“tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ |
tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi ||” (RV 10:90:4)
“Three parts of his are beyond all this; all of this is but a part. Again and again, all that eats, and that eats not, appeared from this one part of His”.
Even Ekakshara Upanishad in its verse no. 3 clearly supports the same theory of Rig Veda and says that entire creation is from a fourth part of the supreme Purusha as follows.
“prāṇaḥ prasūtirbhuvanasya yōnirvyāptaṁ tvayā ēkapadēna viśvam ||” (Ekakshara Upanishad 3a)
“Thou art the Prana (Principle of life); Thou the manifestation (the manifested world); Thou the source of the world; by a quarter hast Thou pervaded this world”.
And the beauty of that Upanishad is that it shuts down all the possibilities of doubts such as “who that Purusha could be?” by revealing in the very first verse itself that the Supreme Purusha in discussion is Shiva the consort of Uma, and who is known through the means of Sushumna.
“ēkākśaraṁ tvakśarē’trāsti sōmē suṣumnāyā̃ cēha dṛḍhī sa ēkaḥ |
tvaṁ viśvabhūrbhūtapatiḥ purāṇaḥ parjanya ēkō bhuvanasya gōptā |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world”.
So far we are clear that from the fourth part of Bhagawan Rudra, emerged this entire creation. Now, let’s proceed further.
Rig Veda further says that at first Purusha created the Virāj (which is another name for Hiranyagarbha and in simple words is nothing but the great egg which contains all the worlds) and then within that great egg he entered and manifested himself into various forms – both mobile and immobile forms. That means, all the creation is Bhagawan Rudra alone.
“tasmād virāḷ ajāyata virājo adhi pūruṣaḥ |
sa jātoatyaricyata paścād bhūmimatho puraḥ ||” (RV 10:90:5)
“From him (i.e., Puruṣa) Virāj was born; again Puruṣa was born from Virāj. As soon as he was born he spread eastward and westward over the earth”.
In this connection, Ekakshara Upanishad states that Bhagawan Rudra who created this world, enered the world as its child. Here the garbha (womb) in this verse is indicative of both Brhamanda (Hiranya-garbha) as well as the pindanda (body). We’ll see both these connections one by one.
“tvaṁ viśvabhūryōnipāraḥ svagarbhē kumāra ēkō viśikhaḥ sudhanvā |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 3b)
“Thou art the world’s birth, the cause, the life supreme, and the child in the womb armed with the excellent bow and arrow”.
Now, in the above verse it is stated that Bhagawan Rudra is the child in the womb holding a bow and arrow. This is indicative of the creation of universe (at cosmic level) and is very well supported by Atharva Veda’s Vratya Suktam.
Vratya which means ascetic wanderer form, is another name by which Mahadeva is termed in Vedas. Yajurveda calls him as Vratya and also the lord of all such ascetics (vratyas) as follows.
“namō vrātēbhyō vrātapatibhyaśca vō namaḥ |” (Yajurveda IV:5:4:d)
“Homage to you in the form of Vratya, and to you, who are the lord of vratyas, homage!”
Atharva Veda has an entire hymn dedicated to Lord Shiva’s Vratya aspect and there it says that this Vratya created the world through prajapati (viraj) and then into that golden-egg (hiranyagarbha), this Vratya (Shiva) entered and was born within that. He appeared inside that hiranyagarbha (i.e., the universe) having a bow and arrow in his hands and was the first being to manifest within the universe (hence called as Eka-Vratya, i.e., the loner ascetic), and then became the sole lord of all others(Ishana) and was of dark and tawny complexion (Nilalohita) and was the greatest of all the gods (Mahadeva). These points are cited in below verses.
“vrā́tya āsīd ī́yamāna evá sá prajā́patiṃ sám airayat || sá prajā́patiḥ suvárṇam ātmánn apaśyat tát prā́janayat ||”(Atharva Veda 15:1:1)
“There was Vratya (Ascetic form of Lord shiva) . He roused Prajapati to action. Prajapati beheld gold in himself and engendered it”.
“téna prā́jāyata ||”(Atharva Veda 15:1:3)
“Through that he was born”.
“sò ‘vardhata sá mahā́n abhavat sá mahādevò ‘bhavat || sá devā́nām īśā́ṃ páry ait sá ī́śāno ‘bhavat || sá ekavrātyò ‘bhavat sá dhánur ā́datta tád evéndradhanúḥ || nī́lam asyodáraṃ lóhitaṃ pr̥ṣṭhám || nī́lenaivā́priyaṃ bhrā́tr̥vyaṃ prórṇoti lóhitena dviṣántaṃ vidhyatī́ti brahmavādíno vadanti ||” (Atharva Veda 15:1:4-8)
“He grew, he became great, he became Mahadeva. He gained the lordship of the Gods. He became Ishana. He became Eka Vratya. He held a bow, even that Bow of Indra. His belly is dark-blue, his back is red (Nila-Lohita) . With dark-blue he envelops a detested rival, with red he pierces the man who hates him: so the theologians say”.
Therefore, from above verses from Vratya Suktam it is clear that the purport of Ekakshara Upanishad is to highlight the child who is within the womb holding bow and arrow is Mahadeva! That was however at the cosmic level, we have also discussed that even at the earthly level all beings including the foetus within the womb is none other than Mahadeva; for this part let’s see some evidences.
All gods and all creatures are the forms manifested from Rudra only within this universe (Prajapati / Hiranyagarbha). Atharva Veda’s Skambha Suktam makes this clear as follows.
“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ |
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:8:28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”
Lord Rudra is all the female gods also. He is in fact all males, all females, old men, infants and everything that exists is Rudra alone. Svetaswatara Upanishad also confirms this fact as follows.
“tváṃ strī́ tváṃ púmān asi tváṃ kumārá utá vā kumārī́ |
tváṃ jīrṇó daṇḍéna vañcasi tváṃ jātó bhavasi viśvátomukhaḥ |” (Svetasvatara Upanishad 4:03)
“Thou art woman, Thou art man; Thou art a boy and maiden too. Thou as an old man totterest along on a staff; it is Thou alone who, when born, assumest diverse forms”.
In fact Rudra is all those born on earth and all those born in other worlds (gods, goddesses, sadhyas, pitris, demons, gandhervas, nagas etc. everything):
“namaḥ sōbhyāya ca pratisaryāya ca |” (Yajurveda IV:5:6:e)
“Salutations to him (Rudra) who is born in earth and to him who is born in other worlds”.
Finally, Rishi Svetaswatara declares that all that exists is the Purusha (i.e., Rudra) alone and all forms are his forms, all beings are he alone.
“yasmāt paraṁ nāparamasti kiñcidyasmānnaṇīyō na jyāyō’sti kaścit |
vṛkṣa iva stabdhō divi tiṣṭhatyēkastēnēdaṁ pūrṇaṁ puruṣēṇa sarvam ||” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:09)
“The whole universe is filled by the Purusha (Rudra), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing either smaller or greater; who stands alone, motionless as a tree, established in His own glory”.
“sarvānana śirōgrīvaḥ sarvabhūtaguhāśayaḥ |
sarvavyāpī sa bhagavā̃stasmāt sarvagataḥ śivaḥ ||” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all— pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is the omnipresent (lord) Shiva”.
Now, let’s see the same theory of creation as the fourth part of Purusha in terms of fourth part of Tripurasundari (vak).
Creation through Vāk
Till now, we have seen the creation theory with respect to Shiva; now as like as me, the Vedas too do not want us to see any difference between Shiva and Shakti. Therefore, here is the same Rig Veda highlighting the secret of creation through Vak (Tripurasudnari).
Before that let us revisit the Rig Veda verse (10:90:5) which says that Purusha created the Viraj. Viraj is another name of Hiranyagarbha and it is nothing but the great cosmic egg i.e., the universe within which all worlds exist.
“tasmād virāḷ ajāyata virājo adhi pūruṣaḥ ||” (Rig Veda 10:90:05)
“From him (Purusha) Virāj was born; again from Virāj Purusha was born”.
We need to understand that there is no “creation” in absolute sense; because if we admit that something is “created”, it has to be separate from the creator; and that would be a defect in Vedic philosophy and is simply impossible because everything is Brahman (Rudra) alone. So, the creator (Rudra), the created (Hiranyagarbha) and the act of creation (via Shakti or maya) all this triad is verily Rudra alone beyond doubt. This is why Taittiriya Aranyaka of Yajurveda clearly says that entire creation including the created worlds and beings everything is Rudra as stated below.
“viśvaṁ bhūtaṁ bhuvanaṁ citraṁ bahudhā jātaṁ jāyamānaṁ cayata sarvô hyēśā rudrastasmai rudrāya namô astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.
Therefore from the above understanding we infer that Viraj (the universe) which is created from Purusha (rudra) is verily a transformation (or projection) of Purusha alone. Thus it gives us the equation – Viraj is also Purusha. Now, interestingly, even the rishi Svetaswatara also identifies this same Purusha Rudra as being the creator of all the worlds (including heaven, and earth) and visualizes Purusha-Rudra’s ‘sahasraksha sahasrapat’ nature and expresses that same truth as ‘vishvatomukham, vishvatochakshu, vishvatobahu’ in the following words.
“viśvataścakṣuruta viśvatomukho viśvatobāhurutaviśvataspāt |
saṃ bāhubhyāṃ dhamati saṃ patatrairdyāvābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ ||” (Svetasvatara Upanishad 3:03)
“That one god, having his eyes, his face, his arms, and his feet in every place, when producing heaven and earth, forges them together with his arms and his wings”.
Interestingly, this is not any adaptation, modification or any newly revealed verse. Svetaswatara rishi had imported this above verse directly without any modification, as-it-is, from Rig Veda (10:81:03), which is a Sukta on Vishwakarman! That means clearly, Svetaswatara rishi had identified this Purusha (Rudra) as the one who is called as Vishwakarman in Vedas. Therefore, now we got an equation as follows:
- Viraj (Hiranyagarbha) is verily Purusha-Rudra
- Purusha (Rudra) is called as Vishwakarman [because he is the creator (karta) of world ( vishwam)]
Now, let’s see the beauty of the oneness of Rudra and Para-Vak as encoded in Vedas.
Satapatha Brahmana clearly portrays the oneness of Vishwakarman (Rudra) and Vak (Tripurasundari) and says that Vishvakarma doubtless is Vak (speech) and by Vak everything here is created.
“viśvakarma ṛṣiriti | vāgvai viśvakarma ‘rṣirvācā hīdaṃ sarvaṃ kṛtaṃ
tasmādvāgviśvakarma ‘rṣiḥ |” (Śatapatha Braḥmaṇa 8:1:2:9)
“‘The Rishi Visvakarman,’–the Rishi Visvakarman (‘the all-worker’), doubtless, is Speech, for by speech everything here is done (i.e., created): hence the Rishi Visvakarman is speech”.
Vedas describe one lord (Shiva) in various names. Hence Vedas call viśvakarma as tvaṣṭā also. Here is another verse from Aitareya Brahmana which attests the oneness of tvaṣṭā (Shiva) and vāk (Shakti).
“vāg vai tvaṣṭā vāgdhīdaṁ sarvaṁ tāṣtīva |” (aitarēya braḥmaṇa 2:04)
“Tvaṣṭā is verily vāk (speech). vāk shapes (tāṣtī), as it were, the whole universe”.
Further, Atharva Veda clearly identifies Viraj as Vak and says that sages have esoterically called Vak as Viraj. This means, the visible universe (Viraj also called as Hiranyagarbha) is nothing but a product or transformation of Vak alone.
“yā́m āhúr vā́caṃ kaváyo virā́jam |” (Atharva vēda 9:2:05)
“she who is named Vāk and Virāj by sages”.
And further, Atharva Veda erases all doubts by directly voicing the same words which I have mentioned above. It says Viraj is speech (Vak), and thus, speech (Vak) is what is seen as Earth, Antariksha (mid air), and Prajapati (another name of Hiranyagarbha) and the lord of all gods.
“virā́ḍ vā́g virā́ṭ pr̥thivī́ virā́ḍ antárikṣaṃ virā́ṭ prajā́patiḥ |virā́ṇ mr̥tyúḥ sādhyā́nām adhirājó babhūva tásya bhūtáṃ bhávyaṃ váśe sá me bhūtáṃ bhávyaṃ váśe kr̥ṇotu ||” (Atharva vēda 9:10:24)
“Virāj is Speech, and Earth, and Air’s mid-region. He is Prajapati, and he is Mrityu. He is the Lord Imperial of the Sādhyas. He rules what is and what shall be hereafter. May he make me lord of what is and shall be”.
Further, attesting our above analysis as true, Rig Veda simply concludes that the Brahman (Purusha) and Vak are one and the same.
“yāvadbrahma viṣṭhitaṃ tāvatī vāk |” (Rig Veda 10:114:08)
“As far as the Braḥman extends, vāk extends till that place”.
Now, since that we have clearly understood the oneness of Purusha (Rudra) and Vak (Tripurasundari) we would see how Vak has created the world from the vaikhari aspect of the fourfold speech.
Rig Veda has a highly esoteric hymn called as ‘asya vAmIya sukta’ (Rig Veda 1:164); which is one of the most complex hymn containing divine secrets in very cryptic language – That sukta’s verse no. 45 talks about “catvāri vāk” (fourfold speech). It states that speech has fourfold division, three parts are hidden and only one part is what men speak of. The four divisions of speech are viz. – Parā, Paśyantī, Madhyamā and Vaikharī.
“catvāri vāk parimitā padāni tāni vidurbrāhmaṇā ye manīṣiṇaḥ |
ghuhā trīṇi nihitā neṅghayanti turīyaṃ vāco manuṣyā vadanti ||” (Rig Veda 1:164:45)
“Speech hath been measured out in four divisions; the Brahmans who have understanding know them. Three kept in close concealment cause no motion; of speech, men speak only the fourth division”.
Although, on the surface, this above verse is talking about the words spoken by men, but it has a dual meaning – when read at the level of pindanda (our body), it is talking about the four divisions of our speech and is saying that fourth part i.e., vaikari is what people speak; however, when read at the level of the cosmic egg, i.e., brahmanda (which is actually the meaning hidden in this rik), it is actually talking about the creation of the universe from the fourth part of the vak of lord Shiva. This fourth part of lord Shiva’s speech in its vaikhari aspect was breathed forth as Vedas and from those words of the Vedas sprouted this entire universe. Let me repeat and remind – there is no duality between Shiva and his speech (which is his Shakti).
This fourfold division of speech is directly related to the fourfold division of Purusha of Rig Veda (10:90) where in verse no. 4 it states that from the fourth part of Purusha (Rudra) everything got created as stated below.
“tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ |
tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi ||” (Rig Veda 10:90:4)
“Three parts of his are beyond all this; all of this is but a part. Again and again, all that eats, and that eats not, appeared from this one part of His”.
Now, in above cited Rig Vedic verse we see the word “pāda” being used to refer to the entity whose fourth part has created all the worlds. What is this “pāda” all about? Technically, “pāda” has various meanings as per the Sanskrit dictionary, like for instance – foot, quarter or division, quadrant, ray or beam of light, Poetical verse, ‘chapter of a book’ and “a verse or line (as the fourth part of a regular stanza)”. So, what meaning should we adopt for the word “pāda” in this context of creation theory from Purusha Sukta?
The answer is – When we look at creation through the perspective of Purusha, the fourfold state is taken as “pāda” (division or part); but since Purusha is identical with Vāk, when we see through the perspective of Vāk it could be interpreted as “pada” (word) which symbolizes the division (or unit) of speech. This is the reason this fourth part of Purusha is called as the fourth part of speech (vaikhari-Vak) which is the Vedas and from them all the creation manifests. This is evident from the below verse from Mahabharata.
“vēdaśabdēbhya ēvādau nirmimītē sa īśvaraḥ|
nāmadhēyāni carṣīṇā̃ yāśca vēdēṣu sṛṣṭayaḥ||” (MBH 12:232:26)
“Indeed, the Īśvara, in the beginning, created all things from the words of the Vedas. Truly, the names of the Rishis, and all else that has been created, occur in the Vedas”.
Therefore the word “Pāda (Part)” is esoterically same as “Pada (Word)” when creation is the subject. Now, at this juncture we have understood and established the oneness of Purusha-Rudra (also known as Vishwakarman, Tvastha) with Vāk (also known as Virāj), and hence we have seen that creation through Purusha is creation through Vāk. It’s the right moment to close this section and move on to the next section; however, I would like to additionally introduce another entity called ‘Prāna (Ātmān)’, here. This is to put more emphasis and to bring clarity that creation through ‘Prāna (Ātmān) is ‘Mātrikā-śr̥uṣti’ (creation through alphabet) as that is the concept we would see in detail in next sections. So, this is just a foreground being built towards a better understanding of the concept.
(Let’s not worry about the jargons at this moment, because very shortly I am going to correlate Prāna with Vāk and then with Purusha (Rudra), whereby we would have a direct linkage between all the jargons – Vāk, Prāna and Rudra and oneness would be established).
Aitareya Aranyaka says Prāṇa is the “Rik” as shown below. Remember that here in all these references, Prāṇa means Ātmān (Brahman) and not the Prāṇas which spring from Ātmān.
“ēṣa vā r̥gēṣa hyēbhyaḥ sarvēbhyō bhūtēbhyō sa yadēbhyaḥ sarvēbhyō bhūtēbhyōrchata tasmādr̥ktasmādr̥gityāchakśata ētamēva santaṁ |” (Aitareya Aranyaka 2:2:2:07)
“He (Prâna) is a Rik (verse), for he did honour to all beings (by entering into them). Because he did honour to all beings, therefore there was the Rik verse. Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Rik”.
Now the Rik is identified as “Speech (vāk)” in Chandogya Upanishad verse cited below. This again proves the unity betwēn Prāṇa and Vak.
“yā vāk sa rk |” (Chandogya Upanishad I:III:04)
“That which is Speech (Vāk) even that is Rik”.
Aitareya Aranyaka says Prāṇa is the “Word” which is again identified as “Speech (vak)”. It uses the word “Prāṇa” and says that because Prāṇa entered into (pâdi) the creation, therefore he is called as ‘Pada’.
“eṣa vai padamēṣa hīmāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni pādi sa yadimāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni pādi tasmātpadaṁ tasmātpadamityāchakshata ētamēva santaṁ |” (Aitareya Aranyaka 2:2:2:09)
“He (Prāṇa) is a Pada (word), for he got into all these beings. Because he got (pâdi) into all these beings, therefore there was the Pada (word). Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Pada”.
Aitareya Aranyaka further clarifies that Pada (Word) which is nothing but Prāṇa, is verily the syllables (aksharas) of the alphabet. For that reason it is verily Prāṇa who is called as ‘akśara’ (alphabets).
“ēṣa vā aksharamēṣa hyēbhyaḥ sarvēbhyō bhūtēbhyaḥ ksharati na chainamatiksharanti sa yadēbhyaḥ sarvēbhyō bhūtēbhyaḥ ksharati na chainamatiksharanti tasmādaksharaṁ tasmādaksharamityāchakshata ētamēva santaṁ |” (Aitareya Aranyaka 2:2:2:10)
“He (Prāṇa) is an Akshara (syllable), for he pours out (ksharati) gifts to all these beings, and without him no one can pour out (atiksharati) gifts. Therefore there was the Akshara (syllable). Therefore people call him who is really Prâna (breath), Akshara”.
Now, Aitareya Aranyaka strikes right on the head of the nail and finally says that all Vedas, all sounds and all Riks are one and only Prāṇa (ātmā).
“tā vā ētāḥ sarvā r̥chaḥ sarvē vēdāḥ sarvē ghōṣā ēkaiva vyāhrutiḥ prāṇa ēva prāṇa r̥cha ityēva vidyāt |” (Aitareya Aranyaka 2:2:2:11)
“Thus all these Rik verses, all Vedas, all sounds are one word, viz. Prâna (breath). Let him know that Prâna is all Rik verses”.
This Prāṇa is another technical term used by Vedas to refer to Braḥman as like as the name Purusha and all these refer to Bhagawan Rudra alone. Just now, we have already seen in aforementioned verses, the correlation between words (pada), aksharas (alphabets), and riks (verses) with Prāṇa – that is – Prāṇa is nothing but Vāk (Speech). Now let’s see who this Prāṇa is!
In Brihadaranyaka Upanishad sages make enquiries to Yajnavalkya about the multiple gods and he answers them very aptly. Then finally the jury asks him who the one sole god is – who is called ‘Brahman’! – He answers it as – “Prāṇa” – as follows.
“katama eko deva iti | prā́ṇa iti, sa brahma, tyad ity ā́cakṣate |” (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad III:9:9)
“‘Which is the one god?’ ‘The Prāṇa (i.e., Ātmān) is the only God; it is Brahman, which is called Tyat (that)’”.
Here their discussion has converged from multiplicity of gods to one sole supreme lord where Yajnavalkya calls out that one God’s name as Prāṇa and calls it as Brahman (By the way, here also Prana is to be taken as the Atman and not as the Pranas which spring forth from Atman). This Prana is the Rudra from which the eleven Pranas (Rudras) spring forth and hence Rudras are called as the sons of Rudra. Therefore Rudra is the Atman (called here as Prana) from whom Rudras (Pranas) spring forth.
This is the reason when a question arose asking – who is the one sole god? – Yajnavalkya named him as Prana in this Upanishad. When the same topic arose in the mind of rishi Svetaswatara about – Who the one sole Supreme Lord is? – The answer which was revealed to him was pronounced by him, in ecstasy as, – ‘Rudra!’
“eko hi rudrō na dvitīyāya tasthur ya imāṃl lokān īśata īśanībhiḥ |
pratyaṅ janāṃs tiṣṭhati sañcukocānta-kāle saṃsṛjya viśvā bhuvanāni gopāḥ |” (Svetasvatara Upanishad 3:02)
“Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time”.
So, from the above analysis, we infer that the Veda Purusha is Rudra who is called as Prana is identical with his Shakti called as Vak in Vedas; and he (or ‘she’ when seen as Vāk) has created this universe using the aksharas (alphabets) of the speech. The entire creation has manifested from the fourth part of his speech hence, this entire universe is composed of speech alone hence entire universe (virāj) is called as speech (vāk).
All this was just a background that I created just to ensure that the further sections of this article become easy to comprehend. Without this background it would not be easy to comprehend the secrets of “mātrikas” (aksharas) and “varṇamālā” (alphabets) which we would discuss shortly. So, with this firm understanding, let’s now look at the ‘akśaramālika’ forms of Kameshvara and Kameshvari before proceeding with the section related to the ‘mātrikā-sruśti (creation through speech)’ in detail.
To be continued…
The article has been republished from author’s blog with permission.
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