Islamic Science

The Myth of Islamic Science

In this provocative essay, Waseem Altaf, the author argues that the notion of a golden age of Islamic learning is a myth created to counter the current sorry state of intellectual life in the Islamic world.  

Introduced by Dr. N.S. Rajaram

Editor’s introduction

It is widely believed and taught, including in India, that there was a Golden Age of Islamic learning that made a major contribution to science and the arts. In India we are told that this ‘synthesis’ between Hindu and Muslim thought gave rise to a great ‘syncretic’ civilization that was suppressed and eventually destroyed by the British. However, this flies in the face of the fact that not a single name of a major scientist from the five-plus centuries of Islamic rule of India has come down to us. We have to go to pre-Islamic India to invoke names from the past— names like Aryabhata, Varahamihira and the like.

AlBeruni

Al Biruni, eyewitness to the destruction of Indian learning

It is a similar story when we look at universities or centers of learning. Pre-Islamic India was renowned for its universities: Takshashila, Vikramashila, Nalanda, Ujjain and other places attracted students and scholars alike from far and wide, much like the United States of today.

After the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, not a single center of learning (other than Islamic seminaries) was established for over seven centuries. The first modern universities came to be established only during the British rule.

Also worth noting is the fact that the so-called ‘synthesis’ of learning took place before Islamic invasions engulfed both India and Persia in a Dark Age. The Sassanid emperor Kosrau I deserves much of the credit for work that is wrongly credited to Islamic rulers and scholars.

Khosrau I (reigned 531–79) known as Anushirvan or ‘the immortal soul’ was a great patron of philosophy and knowledge. He gave refuge to scholars from the Eastern Roman Empire when the bigoted Christian Emperor Justinian closed down the neo-Platonist schools in Athens in 529 AD. Earlier, in 415 AD, Christian goons led by ‘Saint’ Cyril burnt down the great library in Alexandria and murdered the neo-Platonic scholar Hypatia who taught there, because another ‘saint’ Paul had decreed that women must keep their silence.

Khosrau was greatly interested in Indian philosophy, science, mathematics, and medicine. He sent multiple embassies and gifts to the Indian court and requested them to send back philosophers to teach in his court in return. Khosrau made many translations of texts from Greek, Sanskrit, and Syriac into Middle Persian. He was lauded as “Plato’s Philosopher King” by the Greek refugees that he allowed into his empire because of his great interest in Platonic philosophy.

A synthesis of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Armenian learning traditions took place within the Sassanian Empire. One outcome of this synthesis created what is known as bimari-stan (‘home for the ailing’), the first hospital that introduced a concept of segregating wards according to pathology. Greek pharmacology fused with Iranian and Indian traditions resulted in significant advances in medicine.

Regrettably this pre-Islamic era  of learning came to an abrupt end following the Arab (Muslim) invasions and the defeat of Sassanid Persia The reality is that most of this ‘synthesis’ took place in the pre-Islamic period until Islamic invasions sank both Persia and India into a Dark Age lasting centuries.

IndiaFacts is grateful to the author Waseem Altaf and the publication Viewpointsonline.net for the article. No photograph of the author is published out of concern for the author’s safety. Here is his essay.

Science in the Islamic world

Rational thought in the Muslim world developed during the reign of liberal Muslim rulers of the Abbasid dynasty. However it was after the rise of scholars like Al-Ghazali that all scientific reasoning came to an end in the 13th century. As we remain enamored by our past achievements in the sciences, we forget that there is very little “original” we as Muslims can celebrate and be proud of.

It was during the reign of the early Abbasid caliphs, particularly Mamun-ur-Rashid (around 813 CE) that in his Dar-ul-Hikmah (the house of wisdom) in Baghdad, Muslim scholars would begin translating the classic Greek works, primarily toeing the Aristotelian tradition. In addition, they were heavily relying on Persian and Indian sources.  They also penned huge commentaries on works by Greek philosophers. However, the Muslim translators were small in number and were primarily driven by curiosity. More than ninety nine percent Arabic translations of works of Greek philosophers were done by either Christian or Jewish scholars. It is interesting to note that Islamic astronomy, based on Ptolemy’s system was geocentric. Algebra was originally a Greek discipline and ‘Arabic’ numbers were actually Indian.

Al Ghazali

Al-Ghazali put an end to free thinking

[N.S Rajaram: Indians invented algebra, calling it bija-ganita. Greeks considered some special cases in number theory like Diophantine Equations, also known to the Indians. The cumbersome letter-based notation (like the later Roman numerals) did not lend itself to problems in algebra. The major Greek contributions were the concept of proof (known also to Indians) and above all the axiomatic method at which they excelled. The Arabs themselves never denied their indebtedness to the Hindus in astronomy, medicine and mathematics. They called their numbers ‘Hindu numerals’. As noted in the Editor’s Introduction, much of this took place in pre-Islamic Iran, especially under Khusro I.]

Most of these works were available to the West during 12th century when the first renaissance was taking place. Although Western scholars did travel to Spain to study Arabic versions of classical Greek thought, they soon found out that better versions of original texts in Greek were also available in the libraries of the ancient Greek city of Byzantium.

Notable Muslim scholars

However, it would be unfair not to mention some of those great Muslim scholars, though very few in number, who genuinely contributed in the development of philosophy and science.

  1. Al-Razi  (865 – 925 CE) from Persia, the greatest of all Muslim physicians, philosophers and alchemists wrote 184 articles and books, dismissed revelation and considered religion a dangerous thing. Al-Razi was condemned for blasphemy and almost all his books were destroyed later.
  2. Ibn-e-Sina or Avicinna (980-1037CE), another great physician, philosopher and scientist was an Uzbek. Avicenna held philosophy superior to theology. His views were in sharp contrast to central Islamic doctrines and he rejected the resurrection of the dead in flesh and blood. As a consequence of his views, he became main target of Al-Ghazali and was labeled an apostate.
  3. Ibn-e-Rushd (1126-1198 CE) or Averroes from Spain was a philosopher and scientist who expounded the Quran in Aristotelian terms. He was found guilty of heresy, his books burnt, he was interrogated and banished from Lucena.
  4. Al-Bairuni (973-1048 CE), the father of Indology and a versatile genius, was of the strong view that Quran has its own domain and it does not interfere with the realm of science. [NS Rajaram: Al-Bairuni, or Al-Biruni as he is better known in India, makes it clear that the Islamic invasions made Hindu (and Buddhistic) centers of learning their special targets. In his words: “…Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions. …This is the reason too why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our (Muslim) hands cannot reach.” The last great center of mathematics was in Kerala, from their reach.]
  5. Al-Khawarazmi (780-850 CE) was another Persian mathematician, astronomer and geographer. The historian Al-Tabari considered him a Zoroastrian while others thought that he was a Muslim. However nowhere in his works has he acknowledged Islam or linked any of his findings to the holy text.
  6. Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 CE), one of the greatest mathematicians, astronomers and poets was highly critical of religion, particularly Islam. He severely criticized the idea that every event and phenomena was the result of divine intervention. [NS Rajaram: Omar Kyayyam is known to the world mainly as the author of the Rubayiyat (in its English translation by Fitzgerald), but native Persians see him as a minor poet but a great scientist. Like all free thinkers he was denounced as a heretic.]
  7. Al-Farabi (872-950 CE), another great Muslim philosopher, highly inspired by Aristotle, considered reason superior to revelation and advocated for the relegation of prophecy to philosophy.
  8. Abu Musa Jabir- bin- Hayan or Geber (721-815 CE) was an accomplished Muslim alchemist cum pharmacist. Although he was inclined towards mysticism, he fully acknowledged the role of experimentation in scientific endeavors.
  9. Ibn-ul-haitham or Hazen (965-1040 CE) was an outstanding physicist, mathematician, astronomer and an expert on optics. He was ordered by Fatimid King Al-Hakim to regulate the floods of the Nile, which he knew was not scientifically possible. He feigned madness and was placed under house arrest for the rest of his life.

Contribution of unorthodox thinkers

As we go through the life histories of these great men we find that they were influenced by Greek, Babylonian or Indian contributions to philosophy and science, had a critical and reasoning mind and were ‘not good’ Muslims or even atheists. A significant number of them were reluctant to even reveal the status of their beliefs for fear of reprisal from the fanatics. They never ascribed their achievements to Islam or divinity. And they were scholars and scientists because of a critical mind which would think and derive inspiration from observation and not scriptures which set restrictions on free thinking and unhindered pursuit of knowledge.

Avicenna author of the famous Canon of Medicine

Avicenna author of the famous Canon of Medicine

 

Hence bringing in Islam to highlight achievements of Muslim scientists is nothing but sheer rhetoric as these men did not derive their achievements out of Islam or flourished due to Islam. And we find that whatever little contribution to science was made can be owed to ‘imperfect Muslims’.

[NS Rajaram: Muslims are not alone in this. Many Hindu scholars also make extravagant claims in the name of ‘Vedic science’ and the like that have no basis. Considering their numbers, the Hindus don’t have a particularly good record, compared to say, the Jews. India and Israel became independent countries around the same time but in science there is no comparison. Retreat into religion in the name of ‘spirituality’ must take its share of the blame. Hindu moneybags spend lavishly on religious endowments and dubious holy men, but are measly when it comes to supporting temples of learning. And the few they do (like the Hindu University of America) are an embarrassment and get bogged down in obscurantism and mismanagement.]

 

 Putting ‘God’s hands in chains’

However it was the ‘perfect Muslim’, the Islamist, from the 12th century who was to give the biggest blow to scientific thought in the Muslim world.

Imam Ghazali (1058-1111 CE) who still occupies a centrestage among Muslim philosophers openly denounced the laws of nature and scientific reasoning. Ghazali argued that any such laws would put God’s hands in chains. He would assert that a piece of cotton burns when put to fire, not because of physical reasons but because God wants it to burn. Ghazali was also a strong supporter of the Ash’arites, the philosophers who would uphold the precedence of divine intervention over physical phenomena and bitterly opposed the Mu’tazillites— or the rationalists who were the true upholders of scientific thought.

In other words Ghazali championed the cause of orthodoxy and dogmatism at the cost of rationality and scientific reasoning. Today we find that all four major schools of Sunni Islam reject the concept of ‘Ijtehad’ which can loosely be translated as ‘freedom of thought’. Hence there is absolutely no room for any innovation or modification in traditional thought patterns.

We also find that as Europe was making use of technology while transforming into a culture of machines, the acceptance of these machines was extremely slow in the Islamic world. One prime example is that of the printing press which reached Muslim lands in 1492. However, printing was banned by Islamic authorities because they believed the Koran would be dishonored by appearing out of a machine. As a result, Arabs did not acquire printing press until the 18th century.

Khusro Anivarshan known as the ‘Just’

Khusro Anivarshan known as the ‘Just’

It also stands established that science is born out of secularism and democracy and not religious dogmatism. And science only flourished in places where religion had no role to play in matters of state. Hence there is an inverse relationship between religious orthodoxy and progress in science. Rational thought in the Muslim world developed during the reign of liberal Muslim rulers of the Abbasid dynasty who patronized the Mu’tazillites or rational thinkers.

However it was after the religious zealots’ compilation of the ahadis and the rise of scholars like Al-Ghazali that all scientific reasoning came to an end in the 13th century. As a consequence, Muslims contributed almost nothing to scientific progress and human civilization since the dawn of the 13th century. And while science and technology flourish in the modern world, a vast majority of Muslims, engulfed by obscurantism, still find solace in fantasies of a bygone era——the so called ‘golden age’ of Islam.

Concluding comments by Dr. N.S. Rajaram

Whether one agrees with the author’s radical conclusions or not, it is undeniable that the contributions to science under the great Islamic empires was disproportionately small considering their wealth and power. We already saw that their record in India even during the supposedly ‘great’ Mogul empire was dismal. Part of the problem was that Islamic rulers, instead of encouraging learning, hired foreigners and mercenaries— like Hindus in India and Jews and Christians in the Ottoman Empire.

Indian Muslim historians like Irfan Habib have tried to explain this intellectual vacuum of the Islamic period in India claiming that its rulers were mainly nomadic tribes from Central Asia (like Turks) who were more interested in military exploits than learning or scholarship. But why only under Islam in a belt from India to Turkey and beyond, and that too only after the coming of Islam?

One has to agree with the author Waseem Altaf that Islam (like Medieval Christianity) was mainly responsible for this continuing backwardness. Others, notably Hindus should learn from this and avoid getting trapped in the past.

Dr. N.S. Rajaram is an Indian mathematician, notable for his publications on the Aryan Invasion debate, Indian history, and Christianity. Among his numerous books, the “The Dead Sea scrolls and the crisis of Christianity” is widely acclaimed.
  • SuchindranathAiyer

    True that all these Middle Eastern desert cults are descended in one way or another from an evil spirit that said unto Abraham, “Put no other Gods before me, for I am a jealous God” but the manner of their worship and faith differ somewhat. While some cut of a portion of the foreskin to preserve the lives of their first born son from the evil spirit, others train their young to sit the throats of live stock they have reared, slowly and painfully, like the Gestapo would their dogs, still others consume the virtual blood and flesh of their mythical teacher at every possible celebration. However, some religions evolve and grow in bits and parts until, like communism, they wither away in places allowing humanity to thrive. Others seek the roots of evil in which they were born.

    I am extremely well versed in my religion and was instructed and practiced it at home since birth and with greater rigour since 1967 to qualify to be the equivalent of an occidental prelate in 1987 and have received several dignifying titles from the most respected and ancient institutions of Sanskrit scholarship. .

    I also attended Anglican scripture classes and chapel regularly while at School out of interest and encouraged by my parents. Again, while at School, I gleaned insight into Zoroastrianism from my classmates’ parents.

    I studied the Torah and the Talmud, again out of interest, and to keep myself out of mischief, while in the US. I studied the Quran and the Hadiths while in Africa. I have taken an active interest in the work of the Theosophists and have thereby gleaned an interest in the similarities between ancient faiths and the discrimination to perceive the differences and recognize the shadow of evil. I gained a first hand experience of both Shinto and Budhism while in Japan and from all this I have developed the acumen and become an adept at unraveling the fog of mythology to uncover the underlying History and the truth that lurks behind all religions and is visible only to the adept.

    Standing, thus, on this firm ground, I pronounce Islam to be an inducement to the ways of evil that is reflected in an unbroken line of sadism, cruelty, genocide, slavery, and all that is inhuman, callous and wicked for which the Islamic way of life trains and develops unfortunate infants who fall into its maws from child hood. Such is Islam’s infamy that it even puts the exploits of the Catholic Church, fabricated out of the mythology of Titus Flavius’ Literati and the Empires it engendered to shame.

    Outside of the “Church”, we, the Illuminati, have always known that Titus Flavius brought about the first schism between the Gnostics and the literati to pacify the Jews and create a Christianity, via the Literati, that would be an instrument of the Roman Empire. There never was a Jesus. There was a heretic Rabbi called Jehoshua who was crucified and was followed by the believers (“gnostics”). Titus Flavius, Emperor of Rome created the Literati who drew on the legend of Jehoshua to invent a Christianity around the myth of Jesus to pacify the rebellious Jews. Paul embraced the temptations of Satan repudiated by Jehoshua and turned Christianity into an Empire. Constantine Charlemagne James and others formed Councils that cherry picked gospels suitable for the purpose and discarded the rest. This is why present day Christians cannot perform the miracles attributed to Jesus’ original disciples despite claiming to be following in Jesus’ footsteps. We also know that Christianity not only failed Jesus, but also failed Satan as it got corrupted by various human virtues such as mercy, compassion, and love. This is why Satan set Christianity aside, possessed Mahomet and founded Islam:

  • Holger Jahndel

    PJ MEDIA
    The Problem of Inbreeding in Islam
    BY NICOLAI SENNELS SEPTEMBER 19, 2010 CHAT 30 COMMENTS
    [Editor’s note: Several days ago, an interview with Nicolai Sennels by Jamie Glazov on Muslim inbreeding was published but taken down soon after at the request of the author, as it was decided that several themes needed to be buffered by more evidence and research. The final product ended up working best as an article by Nicolai Sennels himself, which is presented below].

    https://pjmedia.com/blog/the-problem-of-inbreeding-in-islam/

  • SuchindranathAiyer

    The “Golden Age ” of Islam was an illusion created by the ruthless exploitation of slaves and dhimmies by Moslems, and thereafter by the PANGOLIN* Indian Republic

    *Note: PANGOLIN: An enemy of India who believes in inequality under law, exceptions to the rule of law and persecution of some for the benefit of others. At present, the sole purpose of the Indian Republic, Constitutional or otherwise, is to pamper and provide for certain constitutionally preferred sections of society who the British found useful to hold and exploit India at the cost of those who the British hated and persecuted. The Pangolin is a creature that is unique to India and feeds on ants that are known in nature to be industrious and hard working if not quite as fruitful as bees who flee to better climes. (PANGOLIN is an acronym for the Periyar-Ambedkar-Nehru-Gandhi-Other (alien) Religions-Communist Consensus that usurped the British Mantle and has worn it with elan to loot, plunder, and rape India since 1921 and re write History and laws to their exclusive benefit since 1947)

  • The Quran is truly also a scientific book. You can check it out on your own. Quran in Hindi Urdu English is here http://www.quranwow.com

    • mjm

      lol. so can you tell me where gog and magog are?

    • GulliverFredrich2

      No the Quran was written by a mad man and a lunatic

  • tamimisledus

    Thanks for this well researched and informative article.
    Whenever I am confronted by those taken in by the myth of Islamic science, I will be able to refer them to this article which comprehensively demolishes that myth.

  • TamerNashef

    Unfortunately, I came across this essay only yesterday and,
    though well-written, it contains quite a few inaccuracies, half-truths, and
    some factual errors, some of which I will try to address very, very briefly (a LOT
    can written in response). Clearly, the authors’ approach falls in with an
    accelerating trend, both in the West and the whole world, which enjoys
    belittling, downplaying, and dismissing the achievements of medieval Muslim
    scholars. I’m only responding to some of the arguments raised here even though
    I could rebut the other ones as well, but there’s no space or time.

    The claim that “[i]t is widely believed and taught,
    including in India, that there was a Golden Age of Islamic learning that made a
    major contribution to science and the arts” is rather puzzling because it
    suggests that no such “Golden Age” ever existed. The truth of the matter is
    that there is consensus among the most distinguished and highly acclaimed
    historians of science in the West, even among those who do not hold particularly
    favorable views on Islam, that Islamic civilization was at the forefront of
    scientific progress from the eighth or ninth centuries through the fourteenth
    and that science in Islamic civilization during this period surpassed that in
    the Byzantine, Chinese, and Western civilizations (all great civilizations in
    their own right).

    For example, Edward Grant, a celebrated historian with
    pro-Christian bias, admits that “[i]n the Islamic world, for many
    centuries — say, from the ninth to the end of the fourteenth century — the
    level of science, especially in the exact sciences and medicine, far exceeded
    the level in Western Europe” (The
    Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages p 176). He attaches much importance to the European scholarly
    activity from the 10th to the 13th century, which
    produced Latin translations of Arabic scientific and philosophical texts,
    arguing that if it had not been for these momentous translations, the
    Scientific Revolution in Europe would have been significantly delayed. He says:
    “…could a scientific revolution have occurred in the seventeenth century
    if the massive translations of Greco-Arabic science and natural philosophy into
    Latin had never taken place? The answer seemed obvious: no, it could not. Without
    the translations, many centuries would have been required before Western Europe
    could have reached the level of Greco-Arabic science, thus delaying any
    possibility of a transformation of science” (xiii). He concludes:
    “Because of the importance of these translated works, the civilization of
    Islam must be allotted a considerable share of the glory for the Western
    achievement in science” (171).

    Grant goes as far as saying that though Byzantine scholars
    had a linguistic advantage (Greek as a native tongue) over their Muslim
    counterparts, the latter made much more of the Greek scientific corpus they had
    inherited and “transmitted much new scientific knowledge to the West along with
    the Greek classics. Byzantium passed virtually no new science and philosophy of
    its own making to the West” (191). Historians have also tried to whitewash
    the fact that Byzantine scholars had translated Arabic texts into Byzantine
    Greek from at least as early as the 10th century until the fall of the
    Byzantine Empire, thus transmitting Arabic scientific knowledge to Byzantium
    and thence to Western Europe. Christian Arab historian of science George Saliba
    says “it is becoming more and more apparent” that this translation process “may
    have played a very important role in transmitting scientific ideas from Islamic
    civilization to the European renaissance, and thus must change the very image
    of the renaissance itself when it is fully accounted for” (Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance 22).
    Fourteenth-century Byzantine scholar and monk Gregory Chioniades travelled to
    Persia where he studied astronomy under Shams Bukhari and subsequently
    translated into Greek Persian astronomical texts later read and used by
    Copernicus (Judith Herrin’s Byzantium
    74).

    David Lindberg, another eminent historian, says: “The
    scientific achievement in Islam was distinguished and of long duration…From
    the middle of the ninth century until well into the fourteenth, we find
    impressive scientific work in major branches of Greek science, carried forward
    in widely scattered cities of the Islamic world” (The Beginnings of Western Science p 189). He further notes:
    “This period of Islamic preeminence in the mathematical sciences lasted
    well over half a millennium — a longer period than the interval between
    Copernicus and ourselves” (189).

    For his part, Toby Huff stresses that “from the eighth
    century to the end of the fourteenth, Arabic science was probably the most
    advanced science in the world, greatly surpassing the West and China,” adding:
    “Considered altogether, in mathematics, astronomy, optics, physics, and
    medicine, Arabic science was the most advanced in the world” (Rise of Early Modern Science 52). Huff also
    affirms that Islamic civilization had remained superior to the West in the
    field of astronomy until the Copernican Revolution in the 16th
    century, saying: “…astronomical thought and practice in Islam up until the
    Copernican revolution was more advanced than that of Europe” (56). He adds
    that “in the 12th and 13th centuries there was in the West no group of
    scholars of comparable status in astronomy and cosmological speculation working
    in a continuous tradition, like that composed, in Western Iran, of Ibn Bajja
    (Avempace, d. 1138), Ibn Tufayl (d. 1185),Averroes (d. 1198), Al-Bitruji, and
    Maimonides (d. 1204), and in Eastern Islam, Al-Urdi, Al-Tusi, and Qutb al-Din
    al-Shirazi” (219).

    Arabic astronomy also had an advantage over China, where
    Muslim astronomers were employed at the Astronomical Bureau in Peking from the
    thirteenth century onwards to compensate for the lack of Chinese trigonometric
    knowledge (Huff, 50). Arabs and Persians introduced new mathematical ideas to
    the Chinese during the reign of the Yuan Dynasty, which ruled from 1271 to 1368
    (242). In fact, a Muslim Bureau of Astronomy was established in China in 1368
    and continued operating until the arrival of the Jesuits in the 16th century
    (244). In the field of optics, the Chinese, according to the famous British sinologist
    Joseph Needham, “never equaled the highest level attained by Islamic students
    of light such as Ibn al-Haytham” (Science
    and Civilisation in China p 78).

    By the way, just because science in the Muslim world lost
    its primacy to the West and started going into decline in the 14th
    century, it does NOT mean scientific production in Islamic civilization ceased
    altogether after this period. Competent Muslim astronomers and mathematicians
    continued to appear in the Safavid and Ottoman empires. These astronomers and
    mathematicians include, to name but aa few, Mulla Fathallah al-Shirwani (c.
    1450), Sadr al-Sharia al-Bukhari (c. 1350), Jamshid Kashi (1380-1429), Qadizade
    al-Rumi (1364-1436), Ali Qushji (1403-1473), Ulugh Beg (1394-1449), Al-Qalasadi
    (1412-1486), Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi (1437-1513), Ghiyath al-Din Mansur
    al-Dashtaki (died in 1541 or 1542), Shams al-Din al-Khafri (died in 1550),
    Al-Birjadi (died in 1528), Taqi al-Din (1526-1585), Muhammad Baqir Yazdi
    (active in 1637), Baha’ al-Din al-‘Amili (1547-1621), and many others. According
    to Lindberg, in mathematics and astronomy “we find serious research by capable
    mathematicians and astronomers as late as the first half of the sixteenth
    century” (189). He even challenges the idea of decline, noting there are
    Arabic, Turkish, and Persian manuscripts lying in the archives and waiting to
    be read, adding that the material they contain could seriously challenge the
    conventional narrative of scientific decline in the Muslim world (191). I admit
    that these scholars were not on an equal footing with their Muslim predecessors
    or Western contemporaries. I also admit that not all these scholars produced
    original work. However, the abovementioned list proves science in the Muslim
    world did not come to a complete halt after the 14th century.

    The authors’ claim that “rational thought in the Muslim
    world developed during the reign of liberal Muslim rulers of the Abbasid
    dynasty” is not entirely accurate. The translation movement that laid the
    foundations of Islamic civilization had begun during Ummayid reign (661-750),
    particularly with Khalid bin Yazid bin Mu’awiyah who showed interest in alchemy
    and initiated the translation of alchemical texts out of his desire to mint new
    gold coins (see 2nd chapter of George Saliba’s Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance, pp
    27-72). The reign of the Ummayid Caliph Abd-al-Malik (685-705) saw the
    Arabization of the diwan of revenues under the direction of Abu-Thabit bin
    Sulayman bin Sa’d (Saliba 46). This process entailed the Arabic translation of
    manuals on mathematics, astronomy, and other sciences used for the training of
    diwan officers. It would be more accurate to say, therefore, that intellectual
    activity, particularly the translation of Greek manuscripts at the hands of
    Nestorian scholars such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, picked up pace and gained
    momentum, rather than commenced, in the Abbasid era.

    The authors replicate the traditional discourse by charging
    that “it was after the rise of scholars like Al-Ghazali that all scientific
    reasoning came to an end in the 13th century” and that “Al-Ghazali put an end
    to free thinking.” However, Saliba’s book, particularly the last chapter (see
    pp 233-55), debunks the myth that Al-Ghazali’s theology played a key role in
    the decline of science in Islamic civilization. I admit that Al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
    espoused the Ash’arite view that God is behind each and every movement in the
    universe and that there are no fixed or consistent patterns in nature. Clearly,
    such a view is NOT conducive to scientific inquiry and could act as a brake on
    scientific activity. I also admit that Al-Ghazali wrote a diatribe against the
    philosophers’ methods of trying to rationalize religious thought or to
    demonstrate God’s existence through rational arguments. However, Al-Ghazali did
    not oppose rational or scientific thinking per sei nor did he ban the study of
    astronomy, mathematics, and other sciences. He simply believed that philosophy
    should not encroach into the field of religion and its tools should not be
    utilized in any discussion about God or His nature. As Karen Armstrong points
    out, as far as Al-Ghazali was concerned, “[i]f Falsafah confined itself to
    mundane, observable phenomena as in medicine, astronomy or mathematics, it was
    extremely useful but it could tell us nothing about God” (A History of God p 188). We should also keep in mind that
    Al-Ghazali had studied philosophy for three years until he had completely
    mastered it. In remarks reminiscent of great European intellects like Peter
    Abelard and Rene Descartes, Al-Ghazali is known to have said that “doubts lead
    to the truth, as he who has not doubted has not observed and he who has not
    observed has not gained understanding and he who has not gained understanding
    remains in a state of blindness and error.” Elsewhere, Al-Ghazali referred to
    his unflinching curiosity, saying that “thirst for knowledge of matters was my
    aim and habit.” He also praised logic, saying that “most” of its methods are
    “correct and only rarely do they lead to error.”

    Besides, Islamic civilization witnessed the flourishing of
    several scientific disciplines long after Al-Ghazali’s death, in a possible
    indication that his thought did not stifle rational thought. Saliba notes “the
    production of tens of scientists, almost in every discipline, who continued to
    produce scientific texts that were in many ways superior to the texts that were
    produced before the time of Ghazali” (237). That science continued thriving in
    the post-Ghazali period is evident in the following list of Muslim scholars: Isma’il al-Jazari (1136-1206, a brilliant
    inventor, mechanical engineer, and author of The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices), Ibn al-Nafis (died in 1288, discovered the
    pulmonary circulation of the blood centuries before William Harvey), Kamal al-Din al-Farisi (1267-1319, conducted
    an experiment that led him to come up with a mathematical explanation of the
    rainbow), Ibn al-Quff (1233-86, extolled
    as “the most famous surgeon of his age” by Huff on page 167 of his book The Rise of Early Modern Science, provided
    detailed and accurate descriptions of the capillary system and of the stages of
    the growth of the embryo), the Maragha astronomers (Nasir al-Din
    al-Tusi, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Yihya Ibn Muhammad al-Maghribi, Mu’ayyad
    al-Urdi, and Ibn al-Shatir; they provided “the first non-Ptolemaic planetary
    models” and their work constitutes the pinnacle of Islamic astronomy and is
    believed to have influenced Copernicus), Jamshid
    Kashi (1380-1429, came up with the very first derivation of
    the cosine rule in trigonometry known in French as the theorem d’al-Kashi and used decimal fractions to pin down a value for the pi and his
    result turned out to be accurate to 16 decimal places), Taqi al-Din (1526–1585, authored numerous works on astronomy,
    mathematics, and optics; contrived highly accurate astronomical clocks and
    other astronomical devises; is reported to have experimented with steam power;
    developed a new method for calculating the latitude and magnitude of the
    stars), Shams al-Din al-Khafri (died
    in 1550, caused “a conceptual shift” in the understanding of the relationship
    between astronomy and mathematics, showing that different mathematical models
    or configurations could account for the same physical phenomena; produced four
    different mathematical models, called wujuh, for Mercury’s motions); Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406, is said to have
    “discovered a number of key economic notions several hundred years before their
    ‘official’ births, such as the virtues and necessity of a division of labor
    (before Smith), the principle of labor value (before David Ricaldo), a theory
    of population (before Malthus) and the role of the state in the economy (before
    John Maynard Keynes),” from page 237 of Jim al-Khalili’s House of Wisdom), and many, many others.

  • vasu

    “Islamic learning that made a major contribution to science and the arts” – MY FOOT!

  • Pingback: The Myth Of Islamic Science | santzp()

  • Taqiyya Sunrise

    ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
    TOP TWENTY REAL MUSLIM INVENTIONS!
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    Butt bomb, hand amputation machine, verses for defecation, cartoonophobia,
    penis-rub pedophilia, religious genocide, Jewish badge, beheading snuff film,
    computer virus, passenger plane-guided missile, burqini, djinn power, female
    co-worker breastfeeding, sugaring pubic & arse hair removal, Islamic tampon,
    suicide attack, car bomb, genocide denial, assassination, term ‘Islamophobia’.
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    1. BUTT BOMB
    Al Qaeda’s magazine Inspire gives step-by-step instructions on how to build a bomb designed to be hidden inside the anus to beat airport security. It was conceived by by the brilliant Muslim inventor, Umar Farouq Abdulmutallab, who earlier had also invented the underpants bomb.
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    2. HAND AMPUTATION MACHINE
    Iran has rolled out a machine with which to mete out the gruesome punishment of hand amputation, according to one of the country’s official news outlets. France 24: “Resembling scenes from the Medieval period, the blindfolded sentenced man is held in place by three men in black hoods, one of whom guides the man’s fingers into the large metal contraption, which presumably includes a rotary saw-like function.”
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    3. VERSES FOR DEFECATION
    Prescriptions to use three fingers to wipe one’s arse after defecating, to use an odd number of stones to wipe the arse after you defecate, etc… After all Allah knows best.
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    4. CARTOONOPHOBIA
    The only known death threats for cartoons were received on the following dates. December 1999: Der Spiegel; July 4, 2001: South Park, “Super Best Friends” episode; September 2005: Jyllands-Posten; August 2007: Lars Vilks; September 2007: Bangladeshi cartoonist Arifur Rahman; April 2010: South Park episode “200”, “201”; January 2015: Charlie Hebdo. The Islamic phobia of cartoons extends to “soldier of Satan” Mickey Mouse, who was issued a fatwa by Islamic thinker, Muhammad Al-Munajid, a former Saudi diplomat.
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    5. MUFAAKHATHAH: PENIS-RUB PEDOPHILIA
    The term Mufaakhathah means to have foreplay with one’s prepubescent ‘wives’ in between her thighs. The great Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) himself practiced it on Aisha (RA) when she was 7 and 8 years old.
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    6. RELIGIOUS GENOCIDE
    The first ever instance of religious warfare was on Hijra year 5 when Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ordered almost nine hundred Jews of the Banu Qurayza tribe be massacred by Muslims. The killing began early in the day, ending in torchlight. Those who escaped death were taken captive and sold at slave markets (Sura 33 of the Holy Koran). Coincidentally, the very term ‘genocide’ was coined after the Armenian massacre in the early 20th century.
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    7. JEWISH BADGE
    The Jewish badge, was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their outer garments as a mark of shame during the Holocaust. It was first introduced by a Muslim caliph in Baghdad in the 9th century as a variant of the Zunnār belt.
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    8. BEHEADING SNUFF FILM
    Nick Berg (1978–2004) was an American freelance freelance radio-tower repairman who was stationed in Iraq. He was abducted and beheaded in May 2004 by Islamist militants and the first ever beheading video released. Such videos was popularized by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, one of the greatest Islamic minds of the 21st century.
    ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
    9. COMPUTER VIRUS
    The world’s first PC computer virus was created in September, 1986, by two brothers from Lahore, Pakistan, Amjad Farooq Alvi and Basit Farooq Alvi. The two geniuses actually included their names, phone number and address in the code (lol!) that guaranteed them their special place in the Islamic hall of infamy.
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    10. PASSENGER PLANE-GUIDED MISSILES
    The World Trade Center buildings were destroyed on September 11 2001 by a bunch of devout Muslims using hijacked passenger planes. Allah has surely granted the hijackers a special place in Islamic heaven, with 72 virgins each.
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    11. BURQINI
    Since Allah has forbidden women from ‘tempting’ men, Lebanese-Australian Aheda Zanetti designed the head-to-toe cover for women in the pool. It has been banned from public swimming pools in many places as it is supposed to harbor bacteria and is considered unhygienic. Even more Islamic than the burqini is the ‘veilkini’.
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    12. DJINN POWER
    Djinns (genies, i.e. supernatural beings of fire) can be harnessed to solve the world’s energy needs. This brilliant idea was proposed by Muslim genius, Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood. Mahmood is a prominent nuclear scientist at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and recipient of the prestigious Gold Medal of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences.
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    13. FEMALE CO-WORKER BREAST FEEDING
    Since Allah will be very angry if men and women mix, it is sheer Islamic genius that came up with the solution to tackle the problem of intermingling of male and female co-workers. Female employees must breastfeed their male colleagues. The brilliant mind who came up with this idea was Dr. Attya, a noted scholar at the prestigious Al-Azhar University. He borrowed the idea from none other than Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) himself, who ordered that Sahla breastfeed Salim so that (due to some convoluted reason) the Prophet could marry his own daughter-in-law, Zainab.
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    14. ‘SUGARING’ PUBIC & ARSE HAIR REMOVAL
    Allah has forbidden the shaving of hair below the chin. But he also insists of personal hygiene (that is, by Arab standards). Since the arse and the genitals are below the chin, this poses a big problem for devout Muslims! Islamic inventive genius comes to the rescue – Muslims invented a method called ‘sugaring’, which is basically do-it-at-home bikini waxing using a concoction of caramelized sugar, water and lemon juice.
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    15. ISLAMIC TAMPON
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    16. SUICIDE ATTACK
    Well before the Kamikazes of WW-II, were the Juramentado, the world’s first suicide attackers. A fanatical bunch of Moro Muslim Jihadists, they would shave their eyebrows to resemble the Islamic moon, and then put their hand upon the Koran, and take a solemn oath to prepare themselves to die and take as many lives as possible, as Jihad. They would rush towards crowds decapitating as many as possible with their swords, screaming ‘Allahu Akbar’!
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    17. CAR BOMB
    The first car bomb in history was used in Istanbul, Turkey in 1905 as an assassination attempt on Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
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    18. GENOCIDE DENIAL
    Turkey is the only government that criminalizes the use of the word ‘genocide’ when referring to the massacre of up to 1.5 million Armenians in the Ottoman empire in World War I. The term ‘genocide’ itself was coined by Raphael Lemkin in 1943 to describe the mass extermination of Armenians.
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    19. ASSASSINATION
    The Nizari Ismaili cult was formed in 11th century. One devout Nizari, Hassan-i Sabbah founded the Assassins, for his own political benefit and for revenge against his enemies. He would drug his followers – the Fidayeen – with hashish. The word ‘Assassin’ itself is derived from the Arabic word “Hashishin” (hashish addict).
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    20. THE TERM ‘ISLAMOPHOBIA’
    The first use of the word ‘Islamophobia’ (Fr: Islamophobie) was by Nasr’Eddine Dinet, a French Muslim and Algerian Muslim Sliman ben Ibrahim in their biography of prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in 1918. Nowadays Islamophobia is a catch-all term for many phobias such as misogyny-phobia, intolerance-phobia or violence-phobia, as well as many phobia of phobias, e.g. homophobia-phobia (hating haters of homosexuals) or cartoonophobia-phobia (hating haters of harmless cartoons).
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    Subhan’Allah Alhamdulillah Allahu Akbar. Insha’Allah!

  • The Chosen One

    While there is no doubt about the contribution of Indians in sharing the knowledge without looking for a return, it is time to think ahead. For various reasons, the biggest beneficiaries of the knowledge are the western countries and India is left far behind. It’s time to turn the table and improvise on the current knowledge & inventions. Only then can India be back in the top instead of harping upon what has been lost centuries of progress

  • Pingback: L’âge d’or de l’islam, un mythe créé pour compenser le triste état intellectuel du monde musulman | Espace détente, poésie, judaïsme et lutte contre la désinformation()

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  • Most of the translators in Dar al Hikmah were not Muslim at all, but Syriac Christians and Jews.

  • Connor Gunn Paterson

    The only science (if it can be called that) that islam has ever been good at is the science of warfare, islam is often called the religion of peace and in a sense that is true all the dead are at peace, however they can not find peace even within their own religion just look at the conflict between sunni and shia. Religion and I mean ALL religion has caused more abject misery and suffering than any plague ever could, if people want to belong to a religion fine but none of them have the right to demand that the world bow to them, so much learning has been lost due to fanatical religious belief so tell me what good is religion, science may not know all the answers but if religion keeps getting in the way we may never get out of the dark ages and if you think we have think again.

  • Raj Ambardar

    Religions are Peaceful, take away the religions and peace will stay.
    No doubt, Islam has blood on its hands with un-precedent horrific killings of Innocent victims of Humanity.

    • There are those who quote: “If there was no religion there would be not be any war”

      Many atheists claim that religion is the cause of most wars. However, the history of human warfare shows that less than 7% of all wars have religious causes.

      But the unanswerable question is: How many people would have been killed if there was NO religion?

      “If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be if without it?” — Benjamin Franklin

      But did you know?
      Currently, there are about five Islamic terrorist attacks a day. Some big, some small.
      But it adds up to a constant war being waged against all non-Moslems everywhere in the world simultaneously.
      Islam has killed more people in this decade, per year, than the ENTIRE 350 year history of the Inquisition.
      Moslems are CURRENTLY responsible for the deaths of more Moslems, each year, than all the rest of the deaths of
      Moslems that are killed by all other peoples.

      Could it be that it is the MIS-USE of religion that is at fault?
      The difference is:
      Christians are horrible people when they act CONTRARY to Jesus’s example.
      Moslems are horrible people when they FOLLOW Muhammad’s example.

      “When people in other bona fide religions follow their doctrines they become better people — Buddhists, Hindus, Christians, and Jews. When Muslims follow their doctrine, they become jihadists.” — Clare Lopez

      Atheists and secular humanists consistently make the claim that religion is the #1 cause of violence and war throughout the history of mankind. One of atheism’s key cheerleaders, Sam Harris, says in his book The End of Faith that faith and religion are “the most prolific source of violence in our history.”

      While there’s no denying that campaigns such as the Crusades and the Thirty Years’ War foundationally rested on religious ideology, it is simply incorrect to assert that religion has been the primary cause of war. Moreover, although there’s also no disagreement that radical Islam was the spirit behind 9/11, it is a fallacy to say that all faiths contribute equally where religiously-motivated violence and warfare are concerned.

      An interesting source of truth on the matter is Philip and Axelrod’s three-volume Encyclopedia of Wars, which chronicles some 1,763 wars that have been waged over the course of human history. Of those wars, the authors categorize 123 as being religious in nature, which is an astonishingly low 6.98% of all wars. However, when one subtracts out those waged in the name of Islam (66), the percentage is cut by more than half to 3.23%.

      That means that all faiths combined – minus Islam – have caused less than 4% of all of humanity’s wars and violent
      conflicts. Further, they played no motivating role in the major wars that have resulted in the most loss of life.

      The truth is, non-religious motivations and naturalistic philosophies bear the blame for nearly all of humankind’s wars. Lives lost during religious conflict pales in comparison to those experienced during the regimes who wanted nothing to do with the idea of God – something showcased in R. J. Rummel’s work ‘Lethal Politics and Death by Government’

      Non-religious wars:
      1.) The Seven Years’ War (Britain & France)

      2.) The American Revolution

      3.) The French Revolution

      4.) The Napoleonic Wars (France & Europe)

      5.) The Revolutions in the Americas

      6.) The Wars to create and preserve the British Empire (Boer War, Irish Revolution, and the Great Game with Russia
      would all be examples)

      7.) The American Civil War

      8.) The Crimean War

      9.) The Spanish-American War

      10.) World War I

      11.) The Italian invasion of Ethiopia

      12.) The Spanish Civil War

      13.) Stalin’s invasions of Finland, the Baltic states, and Poland

      14.) World War II

      15.) The Chinese Revolution

      16.) The Cold War, including but not limited to the Korean War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, the American intervention in Grenada, and the Soviet campaign in Afghanistan

      17.) The Cultural Revolution in China (If you don’t want to call this a war I’ll concede it)

      18.) Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge Revolution

      19.) The Falklands War

      20.) The Persian Gulf War between Iran & Iraq

      21.) The Persian Gulf War between the United Nations and Iraq

      22.) The Breakup of Yugoslavia (beginning with Slovenia).

      ————————————
      Brain: Pinky, are you pondering what I’m pondering?

      Pinky: Gee, I don’t know Brain, but except for wars with Moslems, what other wars since the Thirty Years’ War, from 1618 – 1648, has been fought over ‘religion’? Narf!

      Brain: You certainly have a point there, Pinky!

      Pinky: Poit!

      • Jeffrey Bell

        Thanks for posting this.

  • At school they told us so many lies, at University it’s worse though. Thank you. They destroyed the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. By far the greatest loss for humanity.

  • Tim Kirne

    While there are certain things in this article that are undeniable unfortunately, such as Al Ghazali’s death knell on Islamic intellectual tradition and subsequent decline- this article comes across as a futile attempt by extreme Indian nationalists to boost their morale for the lack of contribution to civilisation on India’s part for several millennia now- and it seems blaming Muslims is the excuse for that. There was no ‘great’ civilisation existing in India prior to Muslim invasion. The last time India contributed something of value was with Buddhism (its culture and philosophy) and even that contribution is only nominal as it developed and flourished in other parts of the world.

    There was no great centre of scientific learning in ancient India where people from ‘all over the world would travel to learn’. Missions came from south east asia and China to acquire knowledge of religions and the Sanskrit language- that’s about as far as the scholastic tradition of India went. The Greeks made no observations of note when encountering India other than to make mention of its notoriously oppressive caste system which exists to this day! The acme of Indian intellectual tradition rested on rote study of a stagnant Sanskrit grammar and literature and religion along with some basic arithmetic and religious pseudo-medicine- hardly scientific or useful to anyone outside its ambit. This is a silly attempt to discredit what has been accepted by decades of scholarship. A few biased no-nothing’s on an extremist site aren’t going to change anything.

    The author is correct is his assertions that Islamic civilisation in India didn’t contribute much in the way of learning other than religious schools. True you would be hard pressed to find any figures other than religious ones from this period. But what great names are there from Sassanid Persia which the author boasts about? Which noteworthy scientists did it produce and what are their contributions?

    The West owed much to Greek and Muslim works to bring about the enlightenment. Should the Enlightenment then be called a myth?

    • rahul

      The western idea of civilization, that is learning,crafts and all activity tied to the political state was not current before the advent of christianity and islam. You are trying to look for a nation state “civilization” in the past, the concept of which is barely 200 years old. Even the Greek civilization was closer in structure and attitude to the hindus than to any modern western states which vainly try to imagine, that they have ïnherited” greek democracy, opinions and attitutdes, and keep concocting stories to that effect. In fact civilizations have and do exist where the political authority does not interfere completely in the lives of each and every citizen but loosely accepts allegiance while politics remains largely independent of common peoples’ lives. It is too common even for intelligent people to get taken in by the sonorous words of what the western historians write.

      India has been a unique civilization where vast numbers of people have been living with relatively less strife for 5000 years-india always has had large populations. It has had its own languages, administrations, luxuries and intellectual culture, which is still alive, long before anyone else alive today had it. If this is not civilization I cant imagine what else can be. If prior to the muslim invasions nothing was there, it is curious how and why they invaded in the first place, how they were able to cart away millions of slaves and much wealth from here. In fact the only concept they brought here was that of a total war state, which is what you want to see to define a culture as civilized.

      It is true that many monks travelled to india for religious learning. But the chinese royal astronomical groups had hindu buddhist scholars designing methods and instructing the chinese- this is well known. Wholesale translations of hindu medical literature was undertaken by both the persians and the chinese, and even al biruni, says that hindu sciences had pearls and sour dates– probably because the intellectual centres were destroyed by the muslims and only corrupt accounts available, somewhat like how after constantine, all academic activity was pushed underground resulting in unscientific material in greece.
      The grammar, which you call stagnant was so because it had already done its job of systematization of language– which modern computer scientists refer to and find cues for their own work.Apart from that there have been bhaskara and madhava who were extraordinary mathematicians who arrived at the threshold of calculus. So even if you havent heard, there have been many etraordinary scientific minds in india right upto the 16th century–after which all energy was directed towards resisting islamic brutality.

      You are again regurgitating the myth of “greek and muslim” prelude to the enlightenment, if it can be called that. Greek learning and material which pagan scholars brought to italy under the leadership of plethon kicked off a new look into knowledge which was a natural process of discovery. Indeed there were persian scientists but they too owed nothing to islam as shown in the article.
      Anglosaxons have a vested interest in advancing islam-a sadistic cult given their own proclivities, which is what has resulted in the so called acceptance by “decades of scholarship’. Such bunkum should be exposed, which is what this article does.

    • GulliverFredrich2

      “There was no great centre of scientific learning in ancient India where people from ‘all over the world would travel to learn’. Missions came from south east asia and China to acquire knowledge of religions and the Sanskrit language- that’s about as far as the scholastic tradition of India went. The Greeks made no observations of note when encountering India other than to make mention of its notoriously oppressive caste system which exists to this day! The acme of Indian intellectual tradition rested on rote study of a stagnant Sanskrit grammar and literature and religion along with some basic arithmetic and religious pseudo-medicine- hardly scientific or useful to anyone outside its ambit. This is a silly attempt to discredit what has been accepted by decades of scholarship. A few biased no-nothing’s on an extremist site aren’t going to change anything.”

      HA HA HA HA HA HA HA HA HA HA HA HA!! What are you talking about? Are we forgetting Taxilla, Nalanda and all the dozens of universities that Indian empires like the Pala’s and Gupta’s established which were the only one of it’s kind in the Ancient world, and that such universities and schools were the only institutions in the ancient period, that had a inter-library loan system much like modern universities colleges have today, and were linked in such a way so that students could transfer in and out within each college and university in Ancient India? Ancient India were the first and only civilization to have formal colleges and universities that resembled the modern university education system, and thousands of students from all over the world specifically tried to break into these same institutions, just as they tried with the Egyptian mystery schools. Most of what is mistakenly attributed to the Hellenes (so called Greek people never called themselves Greeks and never saw themselves as belonging to a monolithic Greek civilization), was simply stolen and appropriated plagiarized knowledge they they acquired from older and more advanced civilizations in Asia and Africa.

      Ancient and medieval India was at the forefront of the mathmatics field of all ancient world civilizations, there was no other ancient civilization that had come to calculas level mathmatics as Ancient India did during the Medieval era, which illustrates that it was Ancient India that was at the forefront of the medieval period. WTF are you talking about Indian sanskrit being stagnant when the language itself GAVE BIRTH TO THE ENTIRE WESTERN LINGUISTICS FIELD, AND IS USED IN COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES TODAY UNLIKE ANY OTHER UNINTELLIGIBLE WORTHLESS LANGUAGE IN THE WEST? India from the BC period to 1 AD-1700 AD pre-British colonization had the biggest and largest manufacturing economy in the entire world par none, I would hardly call that stagnant. Ancient and medieval India completely dwarfs and over-shadows the entirety of Europe so much so, that it’s not even a laughing matter. Much of the golden age of Islam can be attributable to Indian scholars and texts being brought to so called Islamic lands and leading to a re-discovery of Indian ancient texts and not “greek ones”…

    • redant2

      When you Europeans (Greeks are a class apart) were still running around as barbarians tearing meat off animal bones, Indians (and Chinese) were writing poetry and writing literary epics, inventing mathematical techniques, calculating values for Pi, inventing metallurgical techniques, devising surgical instruments, developing dental hygiene, imagining flying machines etc etc. India had many renaissances whether it was during the Gupta period of Kalidasa and Brahmagupta, the more ancient Sangam Tamil periods of Silapadikaram and Manimekalai or the Pallavan and Chola periods of some of the most vibrant and innovative architecture and sculpture the world has ever seen. Europe had one freaking Renaissance (and that too as recent as the 1500s) and look at the arrogant pompous Eurocentric monkeys it created in people like you. When Chinese scholars came to India they came for not just Sanskrit but also for philosophy and metaphysics, and took back with them knowledge of some architecture and martial arts (kalaripayattu) as well. Your ignorance is clearly compounded by your arrogance and you sound more like a Sunni fundamentalist. Maybe you can read something like this and clear your head of garbage: https://prezi.com/6ertylipwxvc/influence-of-greek-and-indian-mathematics-on-muslim-scholars/

  • Vivienne Havalant

    Brilliant piece of writing and how re-assuring to be reminded Hindu India led the way. The Vedic Scriptures influenced every religion including Judaism. Hindu India long before any other civilization had concepts of the origins of Universe. Today India has finally put a craft into space. Under muslim domination India has suffered exponentially and still the suffering continues not only in India but any society where Islam dominates. The Dark Ages is truly on the rise unless we do something. I have enormous respect for Dr. N S Rajaram.

  • Procopius

    Great article….but the part about Hypatia is historical bunkum, as were the uncalled for aspersions on Cyril of Alexandria. For reference: http://www.firstthings.com/web-exclusives/2010/06/the-perniciously-persistent-myths-of-hypatia-and-the-great-library

  • Just_me_and_God

    “Muslim Science” was advanced by adopting the knowledge of the peoples they had conquered by the sword.”
    This document (on the link) is proof that the Koran is NOT from God, because and All-Knowing God would not make a single mistake!
    According to the Koran and the stated beliefs of Islam, the Koran is an
    unedited and unchanged, single source manuscript, as told to the illiterate Mohammad over his adult lifetime by the “Angel Gabriel” (Jibral).

    A brief history of where and how the early Muslim’s scientific knowledge was obtained and why they lost it.

    Just some of the “pseudo-scientific” blunders and absurdities of Seventh Century beliefs that are in the Koran.
    Did you know?
    (1.) That the sun sets in a murky spring, and that people live nearby the spring where the sun sets?
    (2.) The Earth does not revolve around the sun, nor does it rotate on its own axis.
    (3.) There is a barrier that prevents fresh water and salt water from mixing?
    (4.) That mountains were driven into the earth as pegs?
    (5.) That human beings come from clots of blood?
    (6.) The World is flat?

    Yet even today Muslims believe everything that is in the Koran is the absolute TRUTH, because Mohammad said that “Allah” told him it was so.
    http://www.pineapplefish56.net/Muslim_Science.html

    • Indeed, the Qur’an contains many incoherent statements.

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  • UncleVladdi

    Precisely! Islam invented absolutely NOTHING. It simply violently invaded and enslaved many previously Greek, Christian countries, like Egypt, Syria, Libya, Iraq (and India and Iran,) destroyed them, and then, centuries later, pretended to rediscover their inventions.

    Islam is a barbaric, might-makes-right-based, predatory parasite. It stifles thought, invents nothing, makes nothing, and does nothing but enslave and live off the works of all the civilized people it attacks.

    Arabic “culture” is one of lies and liars, where one pretends one has done something, merely by having stated one intends to do it. That this has resulted in Arabs actually inventing nothing in the past is also proven by how they have invented nothing in the present, either – in all the Arab and muslim lands, there have been absolutely no Nobel Prize winners, compared to the Jews, whose population is less than 1% of the Arabs (and much less than that of all the other non-Arab muslim countries) who have won so many.

  • BackToZoroastrianism

    Even those Iranian polymaths who were identified as “muslim” were in
    fact Crypto-Zoroastrian. Indeed, islam promotes and encourages ignorance
    and illiteracy for its followers (muslims must follow the example of
    muhammad who was an ignorant illiterate). Therefore, you cannot be a
    polymath scientist AND a real muslim at the same time, it is not
    possible!
    https://www.facebook.com/followzarathushtra!

    • UncleVladdi

      Zoroastrians are correct about the simple, binary nature of the Universe.

  • Brandon_T

    Great essay thanks for it. The anti Christian(and I might add dubious) intro article was a little over the top, but the essay was very informative. Thanks again

  • Great read, so glad I saw the link. Going to be sharing this with lots of friends.

  • Horace Kindler

    The author is profoundly wrong in contending that “science only
    flourished in places where religion had no role to play in
    matters of state. Hence there is an inverse relationship between
    religious orthodoxy and progress in science.” The author seems
    oblivious that western science flourished precisely in the
    midst of Christendom, perhaps in spite of the Church, but
    nevertheless in its midst. In several of his books, Remi Braque
    has addressed this matter of the Church’s consequence for the
    development of science and philosophy in the context of
    Aristotelianism. The dilemma for the Church was its inheritance,
    on the one hand, of a conception and attitude towards the
    natural world as fallen and, on the other hand, its attraction
    to the Greek concept of that world as one worthy of rational
    study and engagement. The Church was profoundly challenged to
    reconcile these two streams, just as theologically it was
    struggling to resolve the conflicting demands of faith and
    reason. It is still attempting to plumb the depths of this
    conundrum, fides quaerens intellectum. Only in
    Christianity could a Pope or any other religious leader speak
    about “Faith, Reason, and the University” as Benedict did in
    2006 at the University of Regensburg. There is simply no
    comparison between Islam and Medieval Christianity in their
    effects on philosophic or scientific development.

    • Brandon_T

      “415 AD, Christian goons led by ‘Saint’ Cyril burnt down the great library in Alexandria and murdered the neo-Platonic scholar Hypatia who taught there, because another ‘saint’ Paul had decreed that women must keep their silence.” What the?!! over the top…..lol.

      • talent4disruption

        so what actually happened??

      • UncleVladdi

        Even the Egyptians admit the muslims burnt it down more than a few times because they “only need the Qur’an!”

        Although I agree that Psaul was a dick and Cyril wasn’t much better.

        • Brandon_T

          Ive met and read lot of people that would qualify as “dicks” inmy book…Saint Paul, for me doesnt make the list. I think he was actually quite “liberal” for his time.

          • paendragon

            “Woman are bad and we should Submit to slavery.”
            “We don’t have to take personal responsibility but can be forgiven everything by saying these magic words:
            “Jesus is God Jesus is God! Jesus is God!”

            CONCLUSION:

            Psaul was a proto-Muhammad idolater.

          • Brandon_T

            Well it would help if you quoted the man correctly. “There is niether Jew nor Gentile, slave or free male or female for you are all one in Jesus Christ.” “love is patient, love is kind. It does not boast, it is not proud. It does not dishonor others, it is not self seeking…”

          • paendragon

            My list and analysis of Psaul’s vile quotes takes up several pages. Nabbing some metaphorical LYING twaddle won’t help your case, either. “Love is (an anthropomorphosized thing) which does (various speculative opinions asserted as facts) etc IS ONLY TO LIE.

            How about: “Submit to Caesar and Authorities, because God put them in charge of you (might makes right)!”

            At BEST, Psaul’s nonsense was only kept in the Bibles as an IQ test – if and when someone thinks they can be reconciled with Jesus’ words and actions (which Psaul never refers to), it proves them to be mindless idolaters.

          • Caliber897

            Paendragon, care to elaborate on your assertion that the Pauline letters from the Christian New Testament are “vile quotes”?

            PS. Are you a hack of the BJP?

          • paendragon

            I may like the BJP, but I don’t work for them – and none of them are “hacks” LOL!

          • Brandon_T

            Paul is talking about early christians needing to follow the laws of the lands in which they live. It is a kind of “render on to ceaser” or separation of church and state.
            Paul refers to the gospels(corintians 8:1), the resurection and the eucharist(1 corinthians(10 :16-17) in his letters. Also is a major character in the acts of the apostles written by the athor of The gospel according to luke.

          • paendragon

            It’s still endorsing slavery and the status quo – NOT something Jesus ever did.

      • I caught that, too. One of the stupidest comments I’ve browsed on the web this week. This author knows nothing about Christianity other than the slobbering hatred he reads from BJP rags.

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  • Maneck Bhujwala

    Very interesting article by Mr. Altaf and Dr. Rajaram.
    One question I have is about claims of rational thinking credited to Greek philosophers.
    According to American philosopher Joseph Campbell, on one of his broadcasts on public TV many years ago, he said that it was Iranian Prophet Zarathushtra (known as Zoroaster by Greek philosophers who studied his teachings that were brought to Greece from Iran, after Alexander’s conquest of Persia and subsequent Greek rule for abut 200 years, before Persian Zoroastrian rule was re-established by Parthian dynasty and succeeded by Sasanian dynasty) who introduced the concept of rational thinking and not the Greeks as popularly assumed.

    • Sree Charan R

      There is a very informative book, which you may like to look into—
      “The Shape of Ancient Thought” by Thomas McEvilley.
      Thank You

    • Aleteia

      Greeks were strong in reasoning before Alexander the Great conquered Persia. Pythagoras created his theory in the 5th century BC. Greeks are credited for being the first ones to create theories – which was a huge step forward in mankind’s history. Aristotle was a great philosopher before Alexander went to war, in fact Aristotle, was Alexander’s teacher. How about the seven sages of Greece – the sophoi; 620 – 550 BC? They were philosophers, statesmen, and law-givers who were renowned in the following centuries for their wisdom.

      • C K G Gulia

        Most of Greek History has been fabricated and the Pythagorean theorem was already in the Baudhyana Sulbashuthras centuries before. Rational thinking was in India and China far before the Greeks. They were not the ”first ones credited to create theories”. The Indians have been credited as being the creators of theories inherently the first through multiple schools of thought, discussion, debates and through various knowledge systems before such civilisations came into existence. They weren’t. It’s an over exaggeration. Another seronious mark of confirmation bias. A considerable amount of what is considered to be ”Greek” was in truth the Indians who were the first. Not the Greeks. Democracy was also practiced in its multi-faceted forms in India. Much of European and Western history has been fabricated for its ”benefit” and fabricated against others much in lieu of that. It is only being rediscovered now that the exact opposite was the case in many instances at the very least. It was the Indians who were the donor for the most part who created the first scientific theories which not only significantly propelled humanity forward but are only being rediscovered and being validated as of now. http://www.theonion.com/article/historians-admit-to-inventing-ancient-greeks-18209

        “Through such chronological manipulations, the threat that the Indian past presents to the Greek miracle [as postulated by European supremacists] is defused by chronology.” – Thomas McEvilley.

        • Aleteia

          (1) How was Greek history fabricated? Herodotus plagiarized somebody or what are you talking about? Do you have anything against Ulysses, Odyssey, the Eneida? Distance matters, how do you think that the Greek “polis”-es copied Indian democracy? (2) It is one thing to have theories, even fools have (unfortunately), but I am talking about creating a theorem, namely Pythagoras who created a formula that we use today. It means a leap forward and a higher abstract thinking of a civilization. Indian civilization could have not been as developed if it wasn’t able to market its findings and absorb them in the circulation of ideas so people can use it. (3) Please name what is considered to be Greek but in fact was Indian, and let me know where I can find a serious resource. (4) If democracy was practiced in India, how come that the cast system even now cripples society? (5) Western world is based on Christianity and as such, on the Ten Commandments, therefore, telling the truth is an imperative, and it permeated the ‘Christian mind’. Don’t be surprised that Immanuel Kant the philosopher, considers that lying is one of the biggest sins. Unfortunately, this can’t be said about Indians. Those who had contacts with Indians, I am sure there are exceptions, told me about the bad habit of lying and cheating. In that part of the world, the given word doesn’t mean too much. No matter how old a society is, if it’s not based on truth, it falls apart, it is devoured by corruption, consequently by poverty and lawlessness. No surprise that Indians are running away from their own country and immigrate to …. those bad Western countries. (6) Do not tell me about fictitious first scientific theories which “not only significantly propelled humanity forward but are only being rediscovered and being validated as of now”, Isac Newton didn’t plagiarize anybody, nor Volta, Pascal, Fermat, Keppler, Rieman, John von Neuman, John Nash, Ampere, Ohm, James Watt, Edison, Graham Bell, Lumiere brothers, Wright brothers, Coanda, Selye, Einstein, Bohr, Crick, (…). (7) If, Indians invented so much science where was it? How come that in many respects, India is so behind? Some parts of the country look like hundreds of years ago. Where are the scientific accomplishments? The quality of a tree is shown by the quality of its fruits. (8) I am sure there are many smart Indians, no doubt about that, with big Ego’s too, but a society shows its true maturity exactly when it is capable of lowering its Ego and is capable of self-criticism, go beyond victimization, build a high level of trust among its citizens, builds good schools which enable the society to prosper, when the valuable person is not undermined by the mediocre, when society as a group is able to unite to reach a higher purpose. India didn’t reach that. Sorry. Convince me, but reality speaks for itself.

          • C K G Gulia

            ”India didn’t reach that”. I’m sorry but as far as Eurocentrists are concerned, I wouldn’t advise on them to run on their ignorance and say that.

          • C K G Gulia

            Historians Admit To Inventing Ancient Greeks

            WASHINGTON—A group of leading historians held a press conference Monday at the National Geographic Society to announce they had “entirely fabricated” ancient Greece, a culture long thought to be the intellectual basis of Western civilization.

            The group acknowledged that the idea of a sophisticated, flourishing society existing in Greece more than two millennia ago was a complete fiction created by a team of some two dozen historians, anthropologists, and classicists who worked nonstop between 1971 and 1974 to forge “Greek” documents and artifacts.

            “Honestly, we never meant for things to go this far,” said Professor Gene Haddlebury, who has offered to resign his position as chair of Hellenic Studies at Georgetown University. “We were young and trying to advance our careers, so we just started making things up: Homer, Aristotle, Socrates, Hippocrates, the lever and fulcrum, rhetoric, ethics, all the different kinds of columns—everything.”

            Just one of the “ancient” artifacts dreamed up in a basement in Somerville, MA.
            “Way more stuff than any one civilization could have come up with, obviously,” he added.

            According to Haddlebury, the idea of inventing a wholly fraudulent ancient culture came about when he and other scholars realized they had no idea what had actually happened in Europe during the 800-year period before the Christian era.

            Frustrated by the gap in the record, and finding archaeologists to be “not much help at all,” they took the problem to colleagues who were then scrambling to find a way to explain where things such as astronomy, cartography, and democracy had come from.

            Within hours the greatest and most influential civilization of all time was born.

            “One night someone made a joke about just taking all these ideas, lumping them together, and saying the Greeks had done it all 2,000 years ago,” Haddlebury said. “One thing led to another, and before you know it, we’re coming up with everything from the golden ratio to the Iliad.”

            “That was a bitch to write, by the way,” he continued, referring to the epic poem believed to have laid the foundation for the Western literary tradition. “But it seemed to catch on.”

            Around the same time, a curator at the Smithsonian reportedly asked for Haddlebury’s help: The museum had received a sizeable donation to create an exhibit on the ancient world but “really didn’t have a whole lot to put in there.” The historians immediately set to work, hastily falsifying evidence of a civilization that— complete with its own poets and philosophers, gods and heroes—would eventually become the centerpiece of schoolbooks, college educations, and the entire field of the humanities.

            Emily Nguyen-Whiteman, one of the young academics who “pulled a month’s worth of all-nighters” working on the project, explained that the whole of ancient Greek architecture was based on buildings in Washington, D.C., including a bank across the street from the coffee shop where they met to “bat around ideas about mythology or whatever.”

            “We picked Greece because we figured nobody would ever go there to check it out,” Nguyen-Whiteman said. “Have you ever seen the place? It’s a dump. It’s like an abandoned gravel pit infested with cats.”

            She added, “Inevitably, though, people started looking around for some of this ‘ancient’ stuff, and next thing I know I’m stuck in Athens all summer building a goddamn Parthenon just to cover our tracks.”

            Nguyen-Whiteman acknowledged she was also tasked with altering documents ranging from early Bibles to the writings of Thomas Jefferson to reflect a “Classical Greek” influence—a task that also included the creation, from scratch, of a language based on modern Greek that could pass as its ancient precursor.

            Historians told reporters that some of the so-called Greek ideas were in fact borrowed from the Romans, stripped to their fundamentals, and then attributed to fictional Greek predecessors. But others they claimed as their own.

            “Geometry? That was all Kevin,” said Haddlebury, referring to former graduate student Kevin Davenport. “Man,that kid was on fire in those days. They teach Davenportian geometry in high schools now, though of course they call it Euclidean.”

            Sources confirmed that long hours and lack of sleep took their toll on Davenport, and after the lukewarm reception of his work on homoeroticism in Spartan military, he left the group.

            In a statement expressing their “profound apologies” for misleading the world on the subject of antiquity for almost 40 years, the historians expressed hope that their work would survive on its own merits.

            “It would be a shame to see humanity abandon achievements such as heliocentrism and the plays of Aeschylus just because of their origin,” the statement read in part. “Moreover, we have some rather disappointing things to tell you about the pyramids, the works of Leonardo da Vinci, penicillin, the Internet, the scientific method, movies, and dogs.”

            http://www.theonion.com/article/historians-admit-to-inventing-ancient-greeks-18209

            In case you decide to pin the blame on someone else. Why not ask them? After all. What have you got to lose?

          • C K G Gulia

            ”Sorry but convince me, reality Speaks for itself”. Very childish of you. Very well then. I suppose you’ll find out that Most of European history is based on inherited knowledge. Also I’m here to tell the truth. By your comments, you can’t be convinced. It seems you’re quite an over confident person thinking that they’r correct in everything. It seems you realy don’t know much about science at all. Also don’t think you know anything about India and Indians because you don’t. Also Democracy died in your cold unbathed Europe didn’t it? Caste has been most prominent in Europe. Also it is your caste. Your accusations are what you’ve rubbed off unto others. It may shock you but upon seeing the only known Western study of the Indian Caste system, you will see to your dismay that it is a European invention. Casta system. While your over confidence may be a display of a show of self-proclaimed honesty (which it isn’t even that) which isn’t truth, Nicholas De Dirks provides the complete indefaticable proof that the Casta System is a foreign imposition. While it may be practiced in India today, do note that it is an imposition unto them. It is an attempt to inflict cultural genocide. Also India would not have achieved so much if the European Casta System was practiced. Also the Dowry System. This originated from Bourbon France. This wasn’t in Asia for the most part except in the regions of the Middle-east.

          • C K G Gulia

            ‘’How was Greek History fabricated?’’. Why not? If anyone takes such truth claims as an article of faith then it is not scholarly or genuine. Are you in shock or disbelief? Well get used to it. European history, considering the past and until recently has been mired by Eurocentrism to the absolute shameless hilt. I think even with the confession from the so-called ‘’historians’’ themselves you still don’t get it do you. It has been and understandably one being innocent to what’s been going on and how things can play out has been off the radar. Europe could never, ever lie about themselves or others could they? Well they can and they did. Though not all needless to say and are removing the cobwebs from the old Imperialist rhetoric. You like to cling on to your own Hubris.

            http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Projects/Pearce/Chapters/Ch10.html

            As has everything else. Out of sight out of mind simple. Fortunately however, this is changing. However, it is yet to gather pace.
            Also just to let you know I’ll give you a pinch of your own Eurocentric ignorance. ”If Indians invented so much science then where is it’’? The Wright Brothers weren’t the first. Try not to think that your inertia of ignorance and denial is your explanation. Also why are 2 million Indian texts in Europe? Please. Sorry, big egos also include you. Who cares if something looks like a hundred years ago? One thing doesn’t fit all. I’m sorry but you really haven’t read the truth claims made by the Greek scholars as earlier posted. Also please don’t consider it as the crucible of civilisation becasuse most of European history is a fabrication of its own hubris. Your own ignorance of India and talking about how it is today as having always been sort of shows the ego and the petulance of your own lack of understanding to treat things with credibility. ”Where are the scientific accomplishments’’? How come in many respects Moldova and Greece are so behind? Seriously. The same applies to you. Using today’s examples as masquarading them as having always been doesn’t cut it. Seriously. It seems the truth has been a bit too much to chew that most of European (and Western for that part) civilisation has been more than an inheritance from localised regions. Try not to think that science was invented by the West because it wasn’t. (Nice try)
            It is replicated by the West. That’s where it is. It is imbedded as the tumor of your arrogant ignorance, that’s where it resides. Your desire not to see it is not the deciding factor as to whether it is or not.

            Who are you to decide what is and what isn’t? Are you an adjudicator of all this? Are you an Authoritative expert on Indian history that too when less than 7% of all known text having been read let alone deciphered and it is only resuming now? No. You’re not.

            1. Read the link again and start treating things with credibiity instead of clinging on to fabricated history. See what the historians themselves had to say. Seems you haven’t read it and are down sizing it as a stop loss.

            2. Marketing ideas is a new concept based on the Christian Theory of Discovery. Also Pythagoras’ Theorem had already been invented in the Baudhyayana shulbaSuthras in 2800 BC. Cases of it were clearly present in India over 800 BC. Now deal with it. ”It means a leap forward in Abstract thinking”. Now this is seriously full of bilge, hubris and Eurocentrism to the rotten core. Sorry, but to your dismay the Greeks were no way near the first to create so-called Abstract thinking. This is an Indian epistemological creation found in the Upanishads. India was more of a donor civilisation. Whereas Greece was more of a recipient civilisation.

            3. As far as Immenual Kant was concerned in general. This doesn’t exclude you however. Now the Dickens’ Syndrome rhetoric is truly showing as well as your Bible ‘’Good news’’ propagation perhaps you haven’t caught on to the fact yet that preaching is one thing, applying it is another. Much of Christianity has to answer for itself anyway. Most of Western history is in general a fabrication. You’re a victim of your own hubris and success. This success is the passing of lies. This is part of your epistemological culture. That’s an irrevocable fact. Many Indians unfortunately have many people who are gullible and are not yet removing the shackles from their minds. Couldn’t seem so irrelevant since actions speak louder than words. Also nothing regarding the consciousness is appreciated. The so-called Ten Commandments meant nothing to the average thief and commoner as a result. The ancients had far far more sophisticated laws. These are merely bread and butter basics which every child would more above and more.

            Just like Oswald Spengler said:

            “Christian theology is the grandmother of Bolshevism.”

            Indic civilisation has been affected by a multitude of factors which now is only now starting to recover. This being, lying and distortion, perpetual inherited corruption on the basis of a foreign dialectic to have turncoats run the region and allow it to rot from within whilst blaming the victim for doing nothing while concealing the truth at the same time for nothing. Also the West’s gradually destroying its credibility by self-congratulating itself (this being being concealing the other’s achievements that too being modern achievements indicating many if not most current inventions and innovations being merely re-discovereris and simply re-branding other peoples knowledge in a manner which is most akin to placing old wine into new bottles). It is an inevitability that it is going to be recovered and referenced back to its genuine origins. In time.

            “One day the last portrait of Rembrandt and the last bar of Mozart will have ceased to be — though possibly a colored canvas and a sheet of notes will remain — because the last eye and the last ear accessible to their message will have gone.”

            ― Oswald Spengler,

            Moreso considering the synthetic West’s behaviour and approach.
            This will happen and that too it will be much more profound. Further still when Indic knowledge, inventions and innovations will be recognised once more. This is already happening.

            Also since discoveries and re-discoveries are being made, you ought to re-consider yourself to becoming more open rather than Eurocentric and rigid. The Westerner still isn’t wanting to listen to their own humble and open minded real dispassionate individuals who are arrogantly upheld by the people who are not interested in any of the facts themselves. Also those who are realistic from other areas (most of all India). These realistic people are not towing your line.

            Fortunately more and more Indians are relieving themselves from western Imperial blindness. Unfortunately Europeans still have it in abundance despite it reducing.

            Comparisons with Western thought & Modern Practices (VERY FEW OUT OF THE INNUMERABLE EXAMPLES):
            Comparisons with Western thought & Modern Practices (VERY FEW OUT OF THE INNUMERABLE EXAMPLES):
             Brahmagupta’s Lemmas (1150 AD): Euler (1674) and La Grange (1768) rediscovered these Lemmas
             Combination (Mahaviracharya, 850 AD): Heriogone (1643)
             Pythogoras Theorem (Sulba Theorem, 2800 BCE)
             Rotation of the Earth (Aryabhata, 499 AD incorrect date): Leon Foucault, 1851 AD
             Heliocentric Theory (Vedic Period): Copernicus (1473 – 1543 AD)
             Speed of light (Rig Veda, 6000 BCE?): Oalus Roemer, 1676 AD (approx. computation)
             Elliptical Path of Planets (Rig Veda, 6000 BCE?): Johannes Kepler (1609 AD)
             Embryology, Blood Circulation in Foetus (Vedic Period): Heironymus Fabricus (1604 AD)
             Surgical Instruments – Forceps (Susruta Samhita, 6th Century BC): Analogous modern instruments are available  Classification of Plants (Susruta Samhits, 6th Century BC): Carlous Linnaeus (1735 AD)
             Circumference of the circle was calculated by Aryabhatta.
             Baudhyayana’s Theorem: The Diagonal of a rectangle produces both areas which its length and breadth produce separately (2800 BC) – Pythagoras (540 BC), Pythagoras was a Vaishnavite Hindu and went to India to study. Perhaps he found out he could learn much from both places.
             Rational, irrational numbers, trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, tangent, arctan, sec and cosec (Shulbasuthras: 2800 BC)
             LAPLACE TRANSFORMATIONS
             Pillar Fabrication and metallurgy (iron with zinc and phosphorous)
             Vega Samskar (part of the Vaisheshika sutras): the three laws of motion (2400 BC) – Newton (1642 – 1727)
             Siddhanta Shiromani by Bhaskara II (1114 AD): ”Massive celestial bodies are attracted powerfully towards the earth by her own (gravitational) force, and they appear to fall as a result of such attraction, but when equal forces act on a body in space from all sides how can it fall” – Newton (1642 – 1727)
             Aryabhatta: Zero (which since the west couldn’t devise much until the Indian introduction of logic and abstract thinking in which just like democracy, they were coined by Greece, but not invented by them as these like many other things were invented in India, Interdeteminate equations and also and quadratic Equations (450 AD being an incorrect date)
             Yajnavalkya (2100 BC): Concept of Heliocentrism
             Brahmagupta: Concept of Infinity
             Bhaskara II (12th Century): Cyclic method or Chakravala – Lagrange 18th Century and a much longer method
             Bhaskara II: Improvements of the sine functions in relation to the velocity of the planets
             Modus Indorum (The method of the Indians): The first book of mathematics in the RENAISSANCE (you were saying it was solely European right? Well even the art forms are derived from the Sarasvathi region)
             Parameshvar: The most detailed obsveration of the planets and described the planetary movements and their orientations after long periods of time (this being many millennia). One of many astronomers who endlessly contributed to the work of observing the star and planetary movements since prior to the Surya Siddhanta
             Madhava (14th Century): Power series for sine and cosine
             CALCULUS (14th Century in the Kerala Malyali school of mathematics but may have been much earlier): Infinite series, differentiation and integration – Newton and Leibniz (17th Century)
             Nilakanth (15th Century): Calculation of the convergent infinite geometric series. Building on the Concept of heliocentrism stated by Paramshvar and Yajnavalkya (2100 BC)
             Sarasvathi Civilisation (11000 BC – 1800 BC): Decimals, decentralised standardised system (Whitworth – 19th Century) and standardisation. Ratios.
             Indian conceptual age of the Earth based on calculation: 4320000 years (1 age of Brahma). – West 20th Century
             Concept of evolution in the Dasavthar (6800 BC) – Europe (19th – 20th Century, with Charles Darwin not fully replicating the overall concept of evolution)
             Panini (2000 BC) – World’s first grammarian (Europe much, much later)
             Pingala (2000 BC) – Brother of Panini and inventor of the Binary code (computation without which no computer or electronic system would effectively work) along with some functions attesting to Binomial Theorem. – Europe (17th and 18th centuries)

            I’m sorry but Indic logic predates Greek Logic by leaps and bounds and the majority of platonic, Socratic, Pythagorean logic, Aristotlean concepts and more originate from India. That’s a clear and clean cut and silent fact which is only being made open once again.

            “Like the crest of a peacock, like the gem on the head of a snake, so is mathematics at the head of all knowledge.” – Vedanga Jyotisa.

            Vedas are the most sophisticated, most profoundly beautiful, and most complete presentations of what Aldous Huxley termed the “perennial philosophy” that is at the core of all religions. In modern academia, of course, there is not supposed to be any “ancient wisdom”. In this hymn, which contains the essence of monism, can be seen a representation of the most advanced theory of creation. The germ of free speculation and skepticism were already present in the Rig Veda.

            Now this required abstract thought. A non-European but an Indian invention.

            (Source: The Empire of the Soul: Some Journeys into India – By Paul William Roberts published by Riverhead Books)

            The statue of Nataraja (dance pose of Lord Shiva) is a well known example for the artistic, scientific and philosophical significance of Hinduism.

            Freedom was born in India. Doubt, the mother of freedom, was born with the Rig Veda, the most sacred scripture of the Hindus which has the following:

            What are words, and what are mortal thoughts!
            Who is there who truly knows and who can say,|
            Whence this unfathomed world
            And from what cause!

            Freedom of the mind created the wondrous world of the intellect — the world of Hindu rishis, philosophers, poets and dramatists. It was the freedom of the mind and freedom of the senses which led to India’s diversity and contributed to the richness of its civilization. No other civilization, not even that of the Greeks, could have enjoyed the freedom that we had. We have to remember, Socrates was forced to drink hemlock! The Inquisition burnt the Christian apostates at the stake and Islam beheaded dissenters.
            Sir John Woodroffe, (1865-1936) the well known scholar, Advocate-General of Bengal and sometime Legal Member of the Government of India. He served with competence for eighteen years and in 1915 officiated as Chief Justice. He has said:

            “Ages before Lamarck and Darwin it was held in India that man has passed through 84 lakhs (8,400,000) of birth as plants, animals, as an “inferior species of man” and then as the ancestor of the developed type existing to-day.

            “The theory was not, like modern doctrine of evolution, based wholly on observation and a scientific enquiry into fact but was a rather (as some other matters) an act of brilliant intuition in which observation may also have had some part.”

            (source: Is India Civilized: Essays on Indian Culture – By Sir John Woodroffe Publisher: Ganesh & Co. Publishers Date of Publication: 1922 p. 22).

            Time in Hindu mythology is conceived as a wheel turning through vast cycles of creation and destruction (pralaya), known as kalpa. In the words of famous writer, Joseph Campbell:

            “The Hindus with their grandiose Kalpas and their ideas of the divine power which is beyond all human category (male or female). Not so alien to the imagery of modern science that it could not have been put to acceptable use.”

            According to Guy Sorman, visiting scholar at Hoover Institution at Stanford and the leader of new liberalism in France:

            “Temporal notions in Europe were overturned by an India rooted in eternity. The Bible had been the yardstick for measuring time, but the infinitely vast time cycles of India suggested that the world was much older than anything the Bible spoke of. It seem as if the Indian mind was better prepared for the chronological mutations of Darwinian evolution and astrophysics.”

            (source: The Genius of India – By Guy Sorman (‘Le Genie de l’Inde’) Macmillan India Ltd. 2001. p. 195). For more on Guy Sorman refer to chapter Quotes201_220).(Refer to Visions of the End of the World – By Dr. Subhash Kak – sulekha.com).

            Huston Smith a philosopher, most eloquent writer, world-famous religion scholar who practices Hatha Yoga. Has taught at MIT and is currently visiting professor at Univ. of California at Berkley. Smith has also produced PBS series. He has written various books, The World’s Religions, “Science and Human Responsibility”, and “The Religions of Man” says:

            “Philosophers tell us that the Indians were the first ones to conceive of a true infinite from which nothing is excluded. The West shied away from this notion. The West likes form, boundaries that distinguish and demarcate. The trouble is that boundaries also imprison – they restrict and confine.”

            “India saw this clearly and turned her face to that which has no boundary or whatever.” “India anchored her soul in the infinite seeing the things of the world as masks of the infinite assumes – there can be no end to these masks, of course. If they express a true infinity.” And It is here that India’s mind boggling variety links up to her infinite soul.”

            “India includes so much because her soul being infinite excludes nothing.” It goes without saying that the universe that India saw emerging from the infinite was stupendous.”
            While the West was still thinking, perhaps, of 6,000 years old universe – India was already envisioning ages and eons and galaxies as numerous as the sands of the Ganges. The Universe so vast that modern astronomy slips into its folds without a ripple.”
            Nancy Wilson Ross (1901 -1986) made her first trip to Japan, China, Korea and India in 1939. She was the author of several books including The World of Zen and Time’s Left Corner. Miss Ross lectured on Zen Buddhism at the Jungian Institute in Zurich. She served on the board of the Asia Society of New York which was founded by John D. Rockefeller III since its founding in 1956 and was on the governing board of the India Council. In private life she was known as Mrs. Stanley Young.

            She has written:

            “Anachronistic as this labyrinthine mythology may appear to the foreign mind, many of India’s ancient theories about the universe are startlingly modern in scope and worthy of a people who are credited with the invention of the zero, as well as algebra and its application of astronomy and geometry; a people who so carefully observed the heavens that, in the opinion of Monier-Williams, they determined the moon’s synodical revolution much more correctly than the Greeks.”
            ” Many hundreds of years before those great European pioneers, Galileo and Copernicus, had to pay heavy prices in ridicule and excommunication for their daring theories, a section of the Vedas known as the Brahmanas contained this astounding statement:
            “The sun never sets or rises. When people think the sun is setting, he only changes about after reaching the end of the day and makes night below and day to what is on the other side. Then, when people think he rises in the morning, he only shifts himself about after reaching the end of the day night, and makes day below and night to what is on the other side. In truth, he does not see at all.”
            “The Indians, whose theory of time, is not linear like ours – that is, not proceeding consecutively from past to present to future – have always been able to accept, seemingly without anxiety, the notion of an alternately expanding and contracting universe, an idea recently advanced by certain Western scientists. In Hindu cosmology, immutable Brahman, at fixed intervals, draws back into his beginningless, endless Being the whole substance of the living world. There then takes place the long “sleep” of Brahaman from which, in course of countless aeons, there is an awakening, and another universe or “dream” emerges. ”

            “This notion of the sleeping and waking, or contracting and expanding, of the Life Force, so long a part of Hindu cosmology, has recently been expressed in relevant terms in an article written for a British scientific journal by Professor Fred Hoyle, Britain’s foremost astronomer. ”

            “Plainly, contemporary Western science’s description of an astronomical universe of such vast magnitude that distances must be measured in terms as abstract as light-years is not new to Hinduism whose wise men, millennia ago, came up with the term kalpa to signify the inconceivable duration of the period elapsing between the beginning and end of a world system.
            “It is clear that Indian religious cosmology is sharply at variance with that inherited by Western peoples from the Semites. On the highest level, when stripped of mythological embroidery, Hinduism’s conceptions of space, time and multiple universes approximate in range and abstraction the most advanced scientific thought. ”

            (source: Three Ways of Asian Wisdom – By Nancy Wilson Ross p. 64 – 67 and 74 – 76).

          • C K G Gulia

            Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (1694-1774) France’s greatest writers and philosophers, was a theist, and a bitter critic of the Church said:

            “It is very important to note that some 2,500 years ago at the least Pythagoras went from Samos to the Ganges to learn geometry…But he would certainly not have undertaken such a strange journey had the reputation of the Brahmans’ science not been been long established in Europe….We have already acknowledged that arithmetic, geometry, astronomy were taught among the Brahmans. From time immemorial they have known the precession of the equinoxes and were in their calculation far closer to the real figure than the Greeks who came much later. Mr. Le Gentil (a French astronomer who spent several years in India) has with admiration acknowledged the Brahmans’ science, as well as the immensity of time these Indians must have needed to reach a knowledge of which even the Chinese never had any notion, and which was unknown to Egypt and to Chaldea, the teacher of Egypt.”

            Professor Edward Washburn Hopkins (1857-1932) Indologist, Chair of Sanskrit Studies of Yale, says:

            “Plato is full of Sankhyan thought, worked out by him, but taken from Pythagoras. Before the sixth century B.C. all the religious-philosophical idea of Pythagoras are current in India (L. Schroeder, Pythagoras). If there were but one or two of these cases, they might be set aside as accidental coincidences, but such coincidences are too numerous to be the result of change. ”

            And again he writes: “Neo-Platonism and Christian Gnosticism owe much to India. The Gnostic ideas in regard to a plurality of heavens and spiritual worlds go back directly to Hindu sources. Soul and light are one in the Sankhyan system, before they became so in Greece, and when they appear united in Greece it is by means of the thought which is borrowed from India. The famous three qualities of the Sankhyan reappear as the Gnostic ‘three classes.’
            (source: Religions of India – By Edward Washburn Hopkins p. 559-560).

            Some sources even credit Pythagoras with having traveled as far as India in search of knowledge, which may explain some of the close parallels between Indian and Pythagorean philosophy and religion. These parallels include:

            f. a belief in the transmigration of souls;
            g. the theory of four elements constituting matter;
            h. the reasons for not eating beans;
            i. the structure of the religio-philosophical character of the Pythagorean fraternity, which resembled Buddhist monastic orders; and
            j. the contents of the mystical speculations of the Pythagorean schools, which bear a striking resemblance of the Hindu Upanishads.

            According to Greek tradition, Pythagoras, Thales, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Democritus and others undertook journey to the East to study philosophy and science. By the time Ptolmaic Egypt and Rome’s Eastern empire had established themselves just before the beginning of the Common era, Indian civilization was already well developed, having founded three great religions – Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism – and expressed in writing some subtle currents of religious thought and speculation as well as fundamental theories in science and medicine.

            Since the logical and ”educated” Indian is one who will only agree with your ego (which would mean that the ”educated Indian is uneducated in the truth itself). The how about educated Europeans who would place your Greek ”Miracle” in its place. After all. It seems that only people from your own region you will accept.
            Laplace (early 19th): ‘’The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Its simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions. The importance of this invention is more readily appreciated when one considers that it was beyond the two greatest men of Antiquity, Archimedes and Apollonius’’
            George Ifra (1994): ‘’The Indian mind has always had for calculations and the handling of numbers an extraordinary inclination,ease and power, such as no other civilisation in history ever possessed to the same degree. So much so that Indian culture regarded the science of numbers as the noblest of its arts… A thousand years ahead of Europeans, Indian savants knew that the zero and infinity were mutually inverse notions’’
            David Mumford, the eminent mathematician writes in his review of the book, Mathematics in India by Kim Plofker:
            “Did you know that Vedic priests were using the so-called Pythagorean theorem to construct their fire altars in 800 BCE (now 2800 BC with proper dating)?; that the differential equation for the sine function, infinite difference form, was described by Indian mathematician-astronomers in the fifth century CE?; and that ‘Gregory’s’ series PI/4 = 1 -1/3+1/3-… was proven using the power series for arctangent and, with ingenious summation methods, used to accurately compute PI in southwest India in the fourteenth century?

            (Source: Mathematics in India – Reviewed by David Mumford – AMS American Mathematical Society – Volume 57 Number 3).

            Gopala and Hemachandra and rhythmic patterns
            Donald Knuth (1938 – ) of Stanford University in The Art of Computer Programming also wrote about this:

            “Before Fibonacci wrote his work, the sequence Fn had already been discussed by Indian scholars, who had long been interested in rhythmic patterns that are formed from one-beat and two-beat notes. The number of such rhythms having n beats altogether is Fn+1; therefore both Gopala (before 1135) and Hemachandra (c. 1150) mentioned the numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, … explicitly.”
            Ian G. Pearce (?) has written: “Mathematics has long been considered an invention of European scholars, as a result of which the contributions of non-European countries have been severely neglected in histories of mathematics. Worse still, many key mathematical developments have been wrongly attributed to scholars of European origin. This has led to so-called Eurocentrism. …The purpose of my project is to highlight the major mathematical contributions of Indian scholars and further to emphasize where neglect has occurred and hence elucidate why the Eurocentric ideal is an injustice and in some cases complete fabrication.” – This might be food for thought for you

            “It is through the works of Vedic religion that we gain the first literary evidence of Indian culture and hence mathematics. Written in Vedic Sanskrit the Vedic works, Vedas and Vedangas (and later Sulbasutras) are primarily religious in content, but embody a large amount of astronomical knowledge and hence a significant knowledge of mathematics. … ‘The need to determine the correct times for Vedic ceremonies and the accurate construction of altars led to the development of astronomy and geometry.’”

            “I feel it important not to be controversial or sweeping, but it is likely European scholars are resistant due to the way in which the inclusion of non-European, including Indian, contributions shakes up views that have been held for hundreds of years, and challenges the very foundations of the Eurocentric ideology. … It is almost more in the realms of psychology and culture that we argue about the effect the discoveries of non-European science may have had on the ‘psyche’ of European scholars. … To summarize, the main reasons for the neglect of Indian mathematics seem to be religious, cultural and psychological”
            (Source: Indian Mathematics: Redressing the balance’ – ‘Abstract’ – By Ian G. Pearce – ‘(IGP-IM:RB) ‘Mathematics in the service of religion: I. Vedas and Vedangas’ and Conclusion.

            Florian Cajori (1859 – 1930) Swiss-born U.S. educator and mathematician whose works on the history of mathematics says:
            “Indians were the “real inventors of Algebra”

            (source: Is India Civilized – Essays on Indian Culture – By Sir John Woodroffe Ganesh & Co. Publishers 1922 p. 182).

            Friedrich Rosen (1805-1837) edited and translated in 1831, The Algebra of Mohammed ben Musa. This is the oldest Arabic on mathematics and it shows that the Arabs borrowed algebra from India.

            (Source: German Indologists: Biographies of Scholars in Indian Studies writing in German – By Valentine Stache-Rosen p.24-25).

            Soviet historians, K. Antonova, G. Bongard-Levin, and G. Kotovsky, authors of A History of India, Moscow, Volume I and II 1973, have spoken highly of scientists of ancient India and their high originality:
            “Aryabhatta’s follower, Brahmagupta, put forward solutions for a whole series of equations.”

            “Indian scholars of this period also scored important successes in the sphere of astronomy. Certain astronomical treatises of this period have been preserved, and these siddhantas bear witness to the high level of astronomical knowledge attained by the ancient Indians.”

            “Brahmagupta (many centuries before Newton) suggested that objects fall to the ground as a result of terrestrial gravity.” – FAR BEFORE NEWTON THAT TOO WITH THE DATE OF BRAHMAGUPTH BEING MISDATED
            “Interesting material relating to astronomy, geography and mineralogy is found in Varahamihira’s work Brihat-samhita….”
            (source: A History of India – By K. Antonova, G. Bongard-Levin, and G. Kotovsky Moscow, Volume I and II 1973 p. 169-171).

            Aryabhatta was a great astronomer of remarkable originality. He is famous for his suggestions of the diurnal revolution of the earth on its own axis. Another important conclusion was about the apparent motion of the sun and the moon. He observes: “The starry vault is fixed: it is the earth which, moving on its own axis, seems to cause the rising and the setting of the planets and stars.”

            (Source: Main Currents in Indian Culture – By S. Natarajan – The Institute of Indo-Middle East Cultural Studies. 1960. p. 62-63).

            Yavadvipa, the ancient name for Java, to which Sugriva sent search parties looking for Sita, is a Sanskrit name mentioned in the Ramayana. Aryabhatta wrote that when the sun rose in Sri Lanka, it was midday in Yavakoti (Java) and midnight in the Roman land. In the Surya Siddanata reference is also made to the Nagari Yavakoti with golden walls and gates.

            (Source: India and World Civilization – By D. P. Singhal Pan Macmillan Limited. 1993. p. 323).

            Comparing the Hindus and the Greeks as regards their knowledge of algebra, Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone says:

            “There is no question of the superiority of the Hindus over their rivals in the perfection to which they brought the science. Not only is Aryabhatta superior to Diaphantus (as is shown by his knowledge of the resolution of equations involving several unknown quantities, and in general method of resolving all indeterminate problems of at least the first degree), but he and his successors press hard upon the discoveries of algebraists who lived almost in our own time!”.

            (Source: History of India – By Mountstuart Elphinstone London: John Murray Date of Publication: 1849 p. 131).

            Professor H. G. Rawlinson writes: “It is more likely that Pythagoras was influenced by India than by Egypt. Almost all the theories, religions, philosophical and mathematical taught by the Pythagoreans, were known in India in the sixth century B.C., and the Pythagoreans, like the Jains and the Buddhists, refrained from the destruction of life and eating meat and regarded certain vegetables such as beans as taboo” “It seems that the so-called Pythagorean theorem of the quadrature of the hypotenuse was already known to the Indians in the older Vedic times, and thus before Pythagoras
            (Source: Legacy of India 1937, p. 5).

            Romesh Chunder Dutt, the famous Indian historian holds that the world is indebted to the Hindus for Geometry and NOT to the Greeks.

            (Source: Ancient Indian Culture At A Glance – By Swami Tattwananda Calcutta, Oxford Book Co. 1962 p. 124).

            Professor Maurice Winternitz is of the same opinion: “As regards Pythagoras, it seems to me very probable that he became acquainted with Indian doctrines in Persia.” (Visvabharati Quarterly Feb. 1937, p. 8).

            It is also the view of Sir William Jones (Works, iii. 236), Colebrooke (Miscellaneous Essays, i. 436 ff.). Schroeder (Pythagoras und die Inder), Garbe (Philosophy of Ancient India, pp. 39 ff), Hopkins (Religions of India, p. 559 and 560) and Macdonell (Sanskrit Literature, p. 422).

            (Source: Eastern Religions & Western Thought – By S. Radhakrishnan ISBN: 0195624564 p. 143).

            Ludwig von Schröder German philosopher, author of the book Pythagoras und die Inder (Pythagoras and the Indians), published in 1884, he argued that Pythagoras had been influenced by the Samkhya school of thought, the most prominent branch of the Indic philosophy next to Vedanta.

            (source: In Search of The Cradle of Civilization: : New Light on Ancient India – By Georg Feuerstein, Subhash Kak & David Frawley p. 252).

            “Nearly all the philosophical and mathematical doctrines attributed to Pythagoras are derived from India.”

            “A Persian translation of the Veeju-Ganitu was made in India,” says Mr. Edward Strachey, “in the year 1634, by Ata Oollah Rusidee.” The same gentlemen says, “Foizee, in 1587, translated the Leelavatee, a work on arithmetic, mensuration,” etc. from which work it appears that “Bhaskara must have written about the end of the 12th century…”

            “We must not,” adds Edward Strachey author of Bija ganita; or, The algebra of the Hindus, “be too fastidious in our belief, because we have not found the works of the teachers of Pythagoras; we have access to the wreck only of their ancient learning; but when such traces of a more perfect state of knowledge; we see that the Hindoo algebra 600 years ago, had, in the most interesting parts, some of the most curious modern European discoveries, and when we see, that it was at that time applied to astronomy, we cannot reasonably doubt the originality and the antiquity of mathematical learning among the Hindoos.”

            (Source: A View of the History, Literature, and Mythology of the Hindoos – By William Ward (1769-1823) volume II p 329 London 1822).

            Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone wrote: “In the Surya Siddhanta is contained a system of trigonometry which not only goes beyond anything known to the Greeks, but involves theorem which were not discovered in Europe till two centuries ago.”

            (Source: Sanskrit Civilization – By G. R. Josyer p. 2).

          • C K G Gulia

            In The Story of Maths, he says Indians made many of these breakthroughs before Newton was born.

            The documentary also features the history of Kerala-born mathematician Madhava (1350-1425) who created calculus 300 years before Newton and German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz did, said Du Sautoy. “We learn that Newton invented the mathematical theory calculus in the 17th century but Madhava created it earlier,” Du Sautoy said.

            Prof K Ramasubramanian of IIT-Bombay has recently released two-volume translation of the Ganita-Yukti-Bhasa by Jyesthdeva points to the fact that some subsets of calculus existed in Indian manuscripts almost two centuries before Isaac Newton published his work.

            And that an Indian mathematician and astronomer Nilakantha Somayaji spoke, in parts, about a planetary model, credited to Tycho Brahe almost a century later.

            In the Tantra Sangraha (The Tantra Sangraha is a treatise on astronomy and related mathematics in elegant verse form, in Sanskrit. It consists of 432 verses.) Nilakantha talks about a planetary model where five planets, which can be seen with the naked eye – Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn – move around the sun, which in turn moves around the earth.
            The fact remains that a century later, Tycho Brahe published the same planetary model and was credited for it, since no one knew of Nilakantha’s work.

            Indic culture is a science and knowledge based culture. Not simply reigion. However, due to Eurocentrism until recently, this was deliberately undermined.

            Do note. That this is in mathematics alone. Many of the dates were deliberately (as well as by accident misplaced). Such as the date of Aryabhatta. There are in fact three Aryabhattas. Yet only two have been falsely accepted and the written treatise of Aryabhattiya was in fact in BC not in the middle of the first millienium AD. This however is being fixed.

            When your own historians speak of fabricating their own history. Then it is high time you get off your high horse and start accepting it. Ask them ‘’How was it fabricated?’’. This will hurt the ego. It is understandable. However, that is the truth.

            “Many of the advances in the sciences that we consider today to have been made in Europe were in fact made in India centuries ago.” – Grant Duff British Historian of India. Dr. Vincent Smith has remarked, “India suffers today, in the estimation of the world, more through the world’s ignorance of the achievements of the heroes of Indian history than through the absence or insignificance of such achievement.”

            GRAMMAR

            According to Sir Monier-Williams (Eng. Sanskrit scholar 1819-1899):
            “The Panini grammar reflects the wondrous capacity of the human brain, which till today no other country has been able to produce except India.”

            (source: Hindu Superiority – By Har Bilas Sarda p. 229).
            Sir William Wilson Hunter has observed:

            “The grammar of Panini stands supreme among the grammars of the world, alike for its precision of statement, and for its thorough analysis of the roots of the language and of the formative principles of words. By employing an algebraic terminology it attains a sharp succinctness unrivalled in brevity, but at times enigmatical. It arranges, in logical harmony, the whole phenomena which the Sanskrit language presents, and stands forth as one of the most splendid achievements of human invention and industry. So elaborate is the structure, that doubts have arisen whether its complex rules of formation and phonetic change, its polysyllabic derivatives, its ten conjugations with their multiform aorists and long array of tenses, could ever have been the spoken language of a people.”

            (source: The Indian Empire – By Sir William Wilson Hunter p. 142). For more refer to chapter on Greater India: Suvarnabhumi and Sacred Angkor

            Leonard Bloomfield (1887-1949) American linguist and author of Language, published in 1933) characterization of Panini’s Astadhyayi (“The Eight Books”)

            “As one of the greatest monuments of human intelligence is by no means an exaggeration; no one who has had even a small acquaintance with that most remarkable book could fail to agree. In some four thousand sutras or aphorisms – some of them no more than a single syllable in length – Panini sums up the grammar not only of his own spoken language, but of that of the Vedic period as well. The work is the more remarkable when we consider that the author did not write it down but rather worked it all out of his head, as it were. Panini’s disciples committed the work to memory and in turn passed it on in the same manner to their disciples; and though the Astadhayayi has long since been committed to writing, rote memorization of the work, with several of the more important commentaries, is still the approved method of studying grammar in India today, as indeed is true of most learning of the traditional culture.”

            While in the classical world scholars were dealing with language in a somewhat metaphysical way, the Indians were telling us what their language actually was, how it worked, and how it was put together. The methods and techniques for describing the structure of Sanskrit which we find in Panini have not been substantially bettered to this day in modern linguistic theory and practice. We today employ many devices in describing languages that were already known to Panini’s first two commentators. The concept of “zero” which in mathematics is attributed to India, finds its place also in linguistics.

            “It was in India, however, that there rose a body of knowledge which was destined to revolutionize European ideas about language. The Hindu grammar taught Europeans to analyze speech forms; when one compared the constituent parts, the resemblances, which hitherto had been vaguely recognized, could be set forth with certainty and precision.”

            Panini to the rescue

            Research team turns to the “world’s first computational grammarian!”.

            No not Greece, Newton or anyone

            SCIENCE

            Electricity and electrolysis were known to the Ancient Indians and has been recovered in part through the knowledge of the dry cell battery.

            For a quick glimpse at what unsung surprises may lie in the Vedas, let us consider these renditions from the Yajur-veda and Atharva-veda, for instance.

            ” O disciple, a student in the science of government, sail in oceans in steamers, fly in the air in airplanes, know God the creator through the Vedas, control thy breath through yoga, through astronomy know the functions of day and night, know all the Vedas, Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva, by means of their constituent parts.”

            ” Through astronomy, geography, and geology, go thou to all the different countries of the world under the sun. Mayest thou attain through good preaching to statesmanship and artisanship, through medical science obtain knowledge of all medicinal plants, through hydrostatics learn the different uses of water, through electricity understand the working of ever lustrous lightening. Carry out my instructions willingly.” (Yajur-veda 6.21).

            ” O royal skilled engineer, construct sea-boats, propelled on water by our experts, and airplanes, moving and flying upward, after the clouds that reside in the mid-region, that fly as the boats move on the sea, that fly high over and below the watery clouds. Be thou, thereby, prosperous in this world created by the Omnipresent God, and flier in both air and lightning.” (Yajur-veda 10.19).

            ” The atomic energy fissions the ninety-nine elements, covering its path by the bombardments of neutrons without let or hindrance. Desirous of stalking the head, ie. The chief part of the swift power, hidden in the mass of molecular adjustments of the elements, this atomic energy approaches it in the very act of fissioning it by the above-noted bombardment. Herein, verily the scientists know the similar hidden striking force of the rays of the sun working in the orbit of the moon.” (Atharva-veda 20.41.1-3).

            (source: Searching for Vedic India – By Devamitra Swami p. 155 – 157). For more refer to chapter on Vimanas and Advanced Concepts).

            Medieval Arab scholar Sa’id ibn Ahmad al-Andalusi (1029-1070) wrote in his Tabaqat al-‘umam, one of the earliest books on history of sciences:

            “The first nation to have cultivated science is India. … India is known for the wisdom of its people. Over many centuries, all the kings of the past have recognized the ability of the Indians in all the branches of knowledge”.

            “The kings of China have stated that the kings of the world are five in number and all the people of the world are their subjects. They mentioned the king of China, the king of India, the king of the Turks, the king of the Persians, and the king of the Romans.

            “… They referred to the king of India as the “king of wisdom” because of the Indians’ careful treatment of ‘ulum [sciences] and all the branches of knowledge.

            A. L. Basham, Australian Indologist

            Two system of Indian thought propound physical theories suggestively similar to those of Greece (albeit at an earlier date). Kanada, founder of the Vaishehika philosophy, held that the world was composed of atoms as many in kind as the various elements (orbited by electrons and containing a nucleus before Rutherford was born). The Jains approximated to Democritus by teaching that all atoms were of the same kind, producing different effects by diverse modes of combination. Kanada believed light and heat to be varieties of the same substance; Udayana taught that all heat comes from the sun; and Vachaspati, like Newton, interpreted light as composed of minute particles emitted by substances and striking the eye. Musical notes and intervals were analyzed and mathematically calculated in the Indian treatises on music and the Pyrthogorean Law was formulated by which the number of vibrations, and therefore the pitch of the note, varies inversely as the length of the string between the point of attachment and the point of touch.
            http://www.sanskritimagazine.com/india/synthetic-presentation-indian-civilization/

            A scratch out of the tonne load of Indian contribution previously thought western. It’s all changing.

            WILL DURANT: ‘’India is the mother of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europe’s languages. She was the mother of our philosophy, mother through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics, mother through Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity, mother through village communities of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all.”
            WILL DURANT: “..India has sent to the West such gifts as grammar and logic, philosophy and fables, hypnotism and chess, and above all numerals and the decimal system. She was the mother of our philosophy..of much of our mathematics..of the ideals embodied in Christianity..of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all.” Will Durant.

            The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Its simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions. the importance of this invention is more readily appreciated when one considers that it was beyond the two greatest men of Antiquity, Archimedes and Apollonius.

          • C K G Gulia

            1. The Indian/Hindu Numeral System: Few people are aware that the numbers that we all use today are an Indian invention. Often referred to as Arabic numerals, after the Arab traders who brought Indian mathematical concepts to the West, this path-breaking Indian invention replaced the cumbersome Roman numeral system in use in the West until then, and stands as one of the greatest human inventions of all time.

            “We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.” Albert Einstein.

            The ingenious Indian system succeeded where the efforts of other great civilisations failed, and today underpins the foundation of modern mathematics and its infinite uses in our day-to-day lives.
            Beyond the numeral system itself, a number of other critical mathematical principles also have their routes in India, whose scientific texts and discoveries were regularly studied by foreign scholars, from Greek philosophers to Arab mathematicians, and from British inventors to Nazi and Cold War era rocket and nuclear scientists.

            “Nearly all the philosophical and mathematical doctrines attributed to Pythagoras are derived from India.” Ludwig von Shroeder

            2. Carburised Steel: Ancient Indians were known pioneers in metallurgy, and had mastered the production of high quality steel more than two thousand years before the process was finally demystified (including through the scientific investigations of Michael Faraday) in Britain and Europe. The legendary Indian Wootz Steel was a source of astonishment to other great civilisations from Ancient Greece to Persia, and from Arabia to Ancient Rome. It was so advanced and prized that it was selected by King Porus as a gift over the gold and silver also offered to him by Alexander the Great.
            The ancient Indian technique of making high quality steel today forms the basis of modern steel production for everything from the vehicles we travel in, to the cutlery we eat with. Barely seven decades after independence, India has again become a world leader in metallurgy and high quality steel production.

            3. Contributions to Western Philosophy: Historians are well aware that the Ancient Greeks and Romans were infatuated with India, just as in Britain and the rest of Europe in later years were during the early modern era. As much as the Ancient Greeks marvelled over Indian technology, town planning and state craft, they also actively sought new ideas and thoughts from India’s Vedic scriptures and philosophers, as well as by learning at ancient Indian universities such as Taxila and Nalanda.

            Many scholars have pointed to significant Indian contributions to Ancient Greek philosophy, often portrayed as the foundation of human – and certainly Western – philosophy. In a thorough recent analysis in The Shape of Ancient Thought, American scholar Thomas McEvilley also details how Indian philosophy directly influenced key facets of pre-Socratic Greek philosophy.
            “Is it not probable that the Brahmins were the first legislators of the earth, the first philosophers, the first theologians? The Greeks, before the time of Pythagoras, travelled into India for instruction.” – Voltaire.

            ”Indian logic is superior to Western logic” – French philosophical research, 1971

            4. Clothing the world: Another revolutionary Indian contribution was the development, production and use of cotton textiles for clothing. The Ancient Greeks were initially not even familiar with cotton, instead often wearing animal skins until the wars of Alexander the Great, during which they discovered and started using Indian garments, which essentially clothe all of us today.
            “Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries.” The Columbia Encyclopaedia

            For Britain, it is important to be aware that one of the pillars of its wealth as a modern nation, and the foundation of the industrial revolution, was directly derived from knowledge and experience of high quality textiles production and trade gained in India, as well as what many economic historians argue was the deliberate dismantling of India’s pioneering textiles industry. It can safely be said that India intellectually and economically contributed directly to the industrialisation of the rest of the world. In his book The Political Economy of Imperialism, Dan Nadudere states that “It was by destroying the Indian textile industry that the British textile industry ever came up at all.”

            “If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed some of its choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solutions, I should point to India.” Max Mueller

            5. ANCIENT DEMOCRACY: The ancient republic of Athens has long been considered the oldest non-tribal, organised democracy in the world. During the modern era, racially motivated European ‘historians’ distorted or simply re-wrote significant Indian and colonial historical achievements, from pettily changing the date of the life and death of the revered Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, to make it appear as if he lived after Pericles and Socrates, to omitting known references to the existence of ancient Indian republics, known as Gana-Sangha (equal assembly), or Gana-Rajya (equal government). (So much for Western thought if it wasn’t even the first to do this, alas ignorance through cognitive dissonance again for the West)

            In the same vein, the history of the ancient Indian republic of Vaishali, which dates back to 600 BCE – almost a century before the institution of Athenian republican democracy – was also ‘adjusted’ to support colonial propaganda of the day. Ironically, Ancient Greece itself demonstrated significant respect and attraction towards India and its achievements, but the legacy of modern-era colonial propaganda in this and many other facets of our collective history, remain with us to this day. – YOU WERE ALWAYS TOLD BY YOUR OWN THAT THIS WAS GREEK, WELL THIS IS FROM YOUR INDIC FOREFATHERS

            “Through such chronological manipulations, the threat that the Indian past presents to the Greek miracle [as postulated by European supremacists] is defused by chronology.” Thomas McEvilley. – IT WILL HELP TO RECOGNISE THIS AND THIS IS HAS HAPPENED WITH A LOT MORE

            Another completely distinct and more widely known ancient form of Indian democracy is the localised ‘panchayat’ system, which literally means an ‘assembly of five’ wise and respected elders. Unlike ancient Indian city and state-level republics, panchayats started as a form of localised grassroots democracy more than three thousand years ago, have survived the rise and fall of repeated conquests and empires, and are still a central feature of India’s modern democratic apparatus.

            [There was more than one form of democracy in India (unlike the west)].

            “India was the mother of..village communities of self-government and democracy.” Will Durant.

            Therefore, with Greek History being so emphasised and dogmatically overemphasised, debunking this was unbearable to the Eurocentrist and the funniest thing of all is the fact that the most favourite civilisation to the Greeks was India itself.

            6. Water on the Moon: One of Independent India’s most notable contributions to modern space exploration occurred between 2008 and 2009, with Chandrayaan-1, the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) first dedicated lunar mission.

            ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) carried both ISRO and NASA instruments, of which the Indian ‘Moon Impact Probe’ first detected the presence of lunar water. This was achieved three months before NASA’s ‘Moon Mineralogy Mapper’ (also part of Chandrayaan-1) made the same breakthrough, to which the discovery of lunar water is often attributed.

            “We want to thank ISRO for making the discovery possible. The moon till now was thought to be a very dry surface with lot of rocks.” Jim Green, NASA Director.

            7. Einstein’s Quantum Statistics: The scientifically advanced Germans have long been considered to be some of the world’s most ardent Indologists.

            “It [The Upanishads] is the most satisfying and elevating reading which is possible in the world; it has been the solace of my life and will be the solace of my death.” Arthur Schopenhauer.

            Prominent German genii from Albert Einstein to the Nazi scientists and inventors who later migrated to the United States or USSR, were eager students of Indian texts such as the remarkably advanced Upanishads. Such texts were often referenced during the 20th Century race to create nuclear technology, space rockets, jet engines and even mind control technologies, all of which are examined in India’s ancient texts.

            “India – the land of Vedas, the remarkable works contain not only religious ideas for a perfect life, but also facts which science has proved true. Electricity, radium, electronics, airship, all were known to the seers who founded the Vedas.” Wheeler Wilcox. – THIS IS ONLY EMERGING AS OF RECENT

            Like many Indian inventors before him, the 20th Century Bengali scientist Satyendra Nath Bose is one of modern science’s unheralded heroes. His work provided the foundations for quantum statistics, which were later endorsed, developed and published by Einstein; the 2001 Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to German and US scientists for their study of condensates, which was in fact first conducted by – and even named after – Bose; the widely covered ‘God Particle’, the Higgs-Boson, is deservedly known to be attributed to Peter Higgs, the British genius behind the Higgs particle. The other, less well known half of the Higgs-Boson is named yet again after Bose, for his ground-breaking contributions to particle physics.

            “Gravitation was known to the Indians before the birth of Newton. The system of blood circulation was discovered by them centuries before Harvey was heard of.” P. Johnstone.

            8. Radio/Wireless Communication: Guglielmo Marconi has for long been credited as the inventor of wireless radio communication. He subsequently received the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy.
            The first public demonstration of the use of radio waves for communication, however, was made by an Indian scientist, Jagadish Chandra Bose. Bose first demonstrated the use of radio in Calcutta, in 1895, two years before a similar demonstration by Marconi in England. More than a century after the feat, Bose has been belatedly credited for his achievement. – NOTE THAT YOU WOULDN’T BE A EUROCENTRIC KID WHOSE OBSCURITY IS ALL SET AND WILL TO COMPLAIN IF THIS WASN’T RE-CREATED
            Bose’s revolutionary demonstration forms the foundation of the technology used in mobile telephony, radars, satellite communication, radios, television broadcast, WiFi, remote controls and countless other applications that play a central role in our daily lives.

            “The inventor (J.C. Bose) has transmitted signals to a distance of nearly a mile and herein lies the first and obvious and exceedingly valuable application of this new theoretical marvel.” The Daily Chronicle, England, 1896.

            9. The ‘Zero’ (0): Little needs to be written about the ‘zero’, one of the most important inventions of all time. This mathematical digit and concept also has a direct link to the ancient philosophy of ‘nothingness’, and is one of many examples of the intermeshing of science and mathematics with spirituality and philosophy in ancient India. (Only one thing which people tend to mention despite being part of the 90% of mathematics which was created in In India)
            ‘‘In the whole history of mathematics, there has been no more revolutionary step than the one which India made when they invented zero.” Lancelot Hogben.

            Other critical branches of mathematics such as Calculus, attributed to Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, were developed to an almost identical formula by Indian mathematicians, hundreds of years before Newton & Leibniz’s findings. Similarly, the Pythagorean-theorem had been developed in India a century before an almost identical revelation in Greece.

            “The study of mathematics in the West has long been characterized by a certain ethnocentric bias, a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism, but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-Western civilizations. The debt owed by the West to other civilizations, and to India in particular, go back to the earliest epoch of the “Western” scientific tradition, the age of the classical Greeks, and continued up until the dawn of the modern era, the renaissance, when Europe was awakening from its dark ages..

            ‘’Due to the legacy of colonialism, the exploitation of which was ideologically justified through a doctrine of racial superiority, the contributions of non-European civilizations were often ignored, or, as George Ghevarughese Joseph argued, even distorted, in that they were often misattributed as European.” Dr. David Gray. – THIS IS NOW BEING RECTIFIED COMPLETELY

            10. Complex Hydraulic Engineering: Since the time of the Indus Valley civilisation over 5,000 years ago, and until the onset of the European colonial era in the recent past, India had created and sustained a vast and highly advanced network of canals, along with intricate irrigation, water management and sewage systems. These sewage systems were so advanced that they were designed to automatically self-clear systems blockages, as well as account for smell and odour. The world’s first flush toilets were also in use in India over 3,000 years ago, and were a feature of most homes in the Indus Valley Civilisation – the largest ancient civilisation in the world.
            According to American author of historical revisionism, David Hatcher Childress, ancient India’s plumbing-sewage systems were so sophisticated that they are still superior to those of many developing countries today. Large public baths were also in existence in the Indus Valley Civilisation, thousands of years before the creation of similar Roman baths.

            A wonder to modern-day researchers, the cities [were] highly developed and advanced. A remarkable early example of city planning. David Hatcher Childress.

            A system of canals similar to those created by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in the 19th Century – although infinitely larger and more complex – existed in India for thousands of years, and was the lifeblood of what was, for the majority of recorded human history until the colonial era, the world’s largest economy.

            Edmund Burke, a prominent British supporter of American revolutionaries and the philosophical father of the modern Conservative party, repeatedly condemned the damage that British dominion had done to India, and specifically pointed to the callous ruination of painstakingly built Indian reservoir systems which had succeeded for thousands of years in keeping dry regions fertile, and India’s people self sufficient, nourished, and prosperous.

            “In the happier times of India, a number almost incredible of reservoirs have been made in chosen places throughout the whole country. There cannot be in the Carnatic and Tanjore [alone] fewer than ten thousand of these reservoirs of the larger and middling dimensions.” Edmund Burke.

            I explained how India shaped our philosophy, gave us modern numerals and instituted pre-Athenian democracy. Before I commence a broader analysis of India in the final articles of this series, this instalment will cover five further notable Indian contributions that were well ahead of their time.

            (This has partially exaplained as to how India shaped our philosophy, gave us modern numerals, most of mathematics and the concepts envisioned today in physics, chemistry and the fundamentals of biology and instituted pre-Athenian democracy. These Indian contributions were far, far ahead of their time)

            11. Medicine: From an advanced understanding of the human nervous system, muscles and organs, to the use of vaccination techniques; from an almost infinite collection of naturally sourced drugs to the employment of holistic preventative medicine; and from a focus on fortifying immunity to mastery of the concepts of digestion and metabolism, ancient Indians have shaped the very foundations of modern medicine and healthcare.

            “Indian medicine dealt with the whole area of the science. Much attention was devoted to hygiene, to the regimen of the body, and to diet.’’

            Arabic medicine was founded on the translations from the Sanskrit treatise, made by command of the Kaliphs of Baghdad, 750-960 AD. European medicine, down to the 17th Century, was based upon the Arabic; and the name of the Indian physician Charaka repeatedly occurs in the Latin translations.” Sir William Hunter, British Historian.
            CHARAKA, THE REAL FATHER OF MEDICINE. No GREEK, ANATOLIAN OR SUMERIAN IN THIS ONE. YET AGAIN.

            Contrary to popular misconceptions, many of the herbs and spices used in Indian cuisine were not merely added to preserve or flavour food, but instead to effortless combine preventative medicine with everyday sustenance. According to the timeless Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, it is actually considered irresponsible and representative of a poor lifestyle to even have to resort to medicine, with preventative natural medicine, i.e. herbs and spices, ingested through daily meals being the preferred option. More than 2,000 years ago, the principal contributor to Ayurveda articulated:
            “It is more important to prevent the occurrence of disease than to seek a cure.” Acharya Charaka, the ‘‘Father of Medicine’’.

            12. Surgery: The concepts, operative methodologies and specialised tools of surgery that were used in India more than 2,000 years ago and first postulated during an even earlier Vedic period, and are still being developed in 21st Century Europe.

            From plastic surgery that is similar in technique and approach to its modern manifestations, to highly developed midwifery, and from usage of anaesthesia to the employment of advanced childcare techniques, these much studied ancient Indian skills again form the foundation of much of our modern knowledge of surgery.
            Under the Emperor Asoka, ancient India also built a vast network of animal hospitals in which specialised veterinary surgery was also common.

            “The surgery of the ancient Indian physicians was bold and skilful. A special branch of surgery was dedicated to rhinoplasty or operations for improving deformed ears, noses and forming new ones, which European surgeons have borrowed.” Sir William Hunter.
            NOT HYPOCRITES

            13. Religious Tolerance: Whilst Buddhism has historically sought to seek converts through peaceful persuasion, and whilst Indian religions do accept conversions to their faith, none of India’s indigenous faiths have a history of forceful conversions, and are instead identified by their pluralistic nature.
            “It is an undoubted fact that in India, religions and philosophical thinkers were able to enjoy perfect, nearly absolute freedom for a long period. The freedom of thought in ancient India was so considerable as to find no parallel in the West before the most recent age.” Max Weber, German Sociologist.
            Ironically, Hinduism and Buddhism have still succeeded spectacularly in spreading their message from India to vast swathes of the Far East, Indonesia to Japan, and from Thailand to China.
            “India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border”. Hu Shih, Philosopher & Former Chinese Ambassador to the United States.

            Historically, India has also been a long-standing refuge for persecuted minorities, with Zoroastrian Iranians (referred to as Parsis) and Jewish communities in particular having fled other parts of the world to make India a home when other major powers pursued systematic campaigns of discrimination and anti-Semitism, if not outright persecution, against them.

            “The Bene Israel flourished for 2,400 years in a tolerant land that has never known anti-Semitism, and were successful in all aspects of the socio-economic and cultural life of the people of the region.”

            Avotaynu (the Jewish genealogical magazine).

            14. Nonviolence: More a civilisational contribution than a ‘discovery’, the active promotion of kindness and strict nonviolence as a rudiment of life spans the entirety of India’s known history, from the ancient concepts of ‘Ahimsa’, to Mahatma Gandhi’s policy of ‘Satyagraha’ (insistence on truth). It forms a core of the Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh traditions, encompasses words as well as physical actions, and extends beyond humans to animals and the environment. – AN HINDU PHILOSOPHY WHICH THE WEST DOESN’T KNOW ABOUT SO MUCH FOR PHILOSOPHY WHEN THE GREEKS GOT 90% OF IT FROM INDIA AND THE MAJORITY WENT TO INDIA IN THE FIRST PLACE TO STUDY
            Unlike most great powers, past and present, India is unique in its long-standing history of not having precipitated military invasions of foreign territories. This is in spite of India having been the world’s most pre-eminent economic power for the majority of recorded human history.

            “India will teach us the tolerance and gentleness of mature mind, understanding spirit and a unifying, pacifying love for all human beings.” Will Durant, American Historian.

            15. Gender Equality: Another civilisational contribution, India, by the deplorably low standards of mankind, and of men in particular, yet again set early standards for humanity in the advancement of the rights of women.

            Gender equality was a cornerstone of ancient Hindu texts and life, with women possessing joint ownership of property rights with men, and, inconceivably for the time, being allowed to divorce. The ancient institution of ‘Swayamvara’ was a practice whereby a potential bride chose a husband from a congregation of suitors whose aim was to win her over. ‘Swayam’ in Sanskrit means self and ‘vara’ means choice or desire. YOUR ”PHILOSOPHY” OF WOMEN WAS WIDELY KNOWN TO BEING POOR TOWARDS WOMEN. NOW IT’S HIGHLY POOR TOWARDS MEN. YOU NEVER SEEM TO GET ANYTHING RIGHT EVEN WHEN YOU THINK SO. FEMINISM IS THE WEST’S ANSWER TO SO-CALLED WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN WHICH IT WORSENS THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN BY MANIPULATING THEM TO BECOME MORE VULNERABLE TO MEN BY COERCING THEM TO SUBMIT TO MALE MANIPULATIONS. IT ALSO SERVES A PURPOSE TO ATTACK AND DENIGRATE MALES AND DISCOURAGE HARMONY BETWEEN THE TWO GENDERS BUT PIT THEM AGAINST ONE ANOTHER. FEMINISM IS A WESTERN DESIGN WHICH HAS SOUGHT TO DESTROY NOT ONLY OTHER COUNTRIES WHICH THE WEST TENDS TO ENFORCE ITS CULTURE OVER, BUT HAS WORKED TO DESTROY THE WEST ITSELF BY TARGETING ITS SOCIETY. THIS IS WESTERN PHILOSOPHY AT WORK (not very utilitarian).
            Western use of philosophy = stagnation and destruction
            The ancient Kama Sutra is a highly evolved (even by today’s standards) guide to harmonious relationships, family life, love, intimacy and gracious co-existence. Contrary to popular Western perceptions of the text being a ‘sex manual’, the Kama Sutra also postulates physical, spiritual and mental equality between both sexes, and is derived from one of the core pillars of Hindu philosophy, ‘kama’, which means enjoyment or passion. It was written during the era of barbarian invasions in Europe, and approximately 1,500 years before similar wisdom became freely acceptable in modern Britain.

            A number of matriarchal communities, in which descent and inheritance is traced through maternal lineage, have existed in India for thousands of years. Matrilineal communities in modern India include the Nair, Bunt and Khasi communities.

            Threats to the relatively advanced rights of women in India came through the imposition of seclusive policies such as the ‘pardah’ (veil) imposed by the Moghuls, and were additionally entrenched by the imposition of Victorian value systems and policies during colonial rule, which led to a rapid and marked decline in the status of Indian women in the modern era. I have often stated that the re-emergence of 21st Century India will not and cannot be complete by virtue of economic success or scientific prowess alone, but instead through the re-assertion of the primacy of women throughout Indian society, as per the best traditions of a much stifled indigenous culture.
            “India of the Vedas entertained a respect for women amounting to worship. Here is a civilization, which places the woman on a level with the man and gives her an equal place in the family and in society.” Louis Jaccoliot, French Author.

          • C K G Gulia

            Prefabricated home and movable structure: It is said that during Akbar’s rule in India, there was the existence of the prefabricated and movable structures. They were first invented in 16th century in India during the Mughal rule.
            • Cataract surgery: The first cataract surgery was performed by the ancient Indian physician Sushruta, way back in 6th century BCE. To remove the cataract from the eyes, he pushed the lens and used a curved needle to remove it, which were then kept immersed in warm butter for a few days till they were healed completely. Many people from various other countries came to India to seek treatment from Sushruta. His surgical works were later translated to Arabic language and got transported to the European countries.
            • Some medical treatments (out of a plethora): Indians were the first to identify leprosy and many remedies for this disease were found in the Atharva Veda. The treatment of removing stones or the lithiasis treatment was first introduced in India. Historical studies have shown that in the 8th century, a well-known scholar Madhav mentioned about the symptoms and ways of immunization against small pox. We also have heard that the two ancient and alternative methods of treatment still popular, Ayurveda and Siddha, originated in India. They are still used for holistic healing. It was the ancient rishis and munis of India who mastered this method of treatment. Upendra Nath Bramhachari, a Nobel Prize nominee and Indian medical practitioner, invented methods to treat visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar or black fever.
            • Radio/wireless communication: In 1909, Guglielmo Marconi received the Nobel Prize in Physics, for his efforts in the development of wireless telegraphy. But, not many know that it was Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose in 1895 who made the first public demonstration of radio communication waves, two years before Marconi’s demonstration in England. More than a century later, Sir Bose was posthumously credited for his achievement, which truly shaped the face of modern wireless communication.
            • Shampoo: We use the word “champo” for head massage even today. The Nawabs of Bengal around 1762 during the Mughal rule, used head massage oil which was referred as champo. The word shampoo is derived from champo. Over the years, the champo oil got evolved into shampoo.
            • Diamonds: Huge deposits of diamonds were found in the midst of the alluvial deposits along the rivers Krishna and Godavari in central India. They were mined from there almost 5,000 years ago. Gradually, they were developed into precious stones as mentioned in various ancient Indian books. Till 18th century, India was the only country where diamonds were found and later on these sparkling stones were found in the mines of Brazil.
            • Rockets: It was in the 1780s, Tipu Sultan, ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore, and his father Hyder Ali first made use of iron-cased and metal-cylinder rockets against the large British East India Company’s forces during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. So the first invention of rockets started in India. However, this may have emerged as far back as 2100 BC.
            • First flush: The remains and the historical studies of the Indus Valley Civilisation that existed in India over 5,000 years ago, revealed how India at that time had created highly advanced canals, along with irrigation, water management and sewage systems. The world’s first flush toilets were also discovered in most homes in the Indus Valley Civilisation, which is supposed to be the largest ancient civilisation in the world.
            • Steel and metal works: Indians were also the pioneers in metallurgy. Sounds strange, isn’t it? But as a matter of fact, high quality steel was produced in India almost 2,000 years back, much before it was used in the West. A seamless celestial globe was also invented for the first time in Kashmir, which is till today considered as one of the most remarkable achievements in metallurgy. Prior to this, it was considered impossible to make a globe made of metal without seams.
            • Systematic organized education system: How can we forget our ancient Taxila, Nalanda and other universities which introduced a systematic education system? Residential schooling or schools with hostels or in ancient terminology “Gurukul” also started in India, where a single teacher taught several students at a time.
            These are just a few of India’s many (and yet to be found/rediscovered) inventions and discoveries which are accepted worldwide. Chess, snakes and ladders, yoga, Sanskrit, Ayurveda, water on the moon, plastic surgery, binary, ink, Fibonacci numbers, fibre optics and many more, originated in India. As a matter of fact, the list is quite long to cover all ancient inventions and discoveries made in India…
            The scratchings of so many contributions originating from India and gradually being acknowledged the world over.
            Ancient Indian Universities
            Apart from the famous Takshasila and Nalanda Universities, there were many more such places where Vedic sciences and research were done by students from various neighbouring countries.
            Education has always been given great prominence in Indian society since the times of the Vedic civilization, with gurukul and ashrams being the centers of learning.
            Most ancient gurukul known in history of India was Dronacharya’s gurukul (5200 years old), which later became guru-gaon (guru’s village) and went on to become modern day’s Gurgaon, near Delhi.
            Apart from the famous Takshasila and Nalanda Universities, there were many more such places where Vedic sciences and research were done by students from various neighbouring countries.
            Education has always been given great prominence in Indian society since the times of the Vedic civilization, with gurukul and ashrams being the centers of learning.
            Most ancient gurukul known in history of India was Dronacharya’s gurukul (5200 years old), which later became guru-gaon (guru’s village) and went on to become modern day’s Gurgaon, near Delhi.
            Takshasila University in present day Pakistan
            Taxila as it is called today in Pakistan, Takshasila University established around 3700 years ago (around 1700 BC) was home to over 10500 students where the students from all across the world used to come to attain specialization in over 64 different fields of study like vedas, grammar, philosophy, ayurveda, agriculture, surgery, politics, archery, warfare, astronomy, commerce, futurology, music, dance, etc.
            Famous graduates of this University include the ones like Panini, Chanakya, Charaka, Vishnu Sarma, Jivaka etc.
            This is the world’s oldest university found till date.
            Nalanda University in present day Bihar
            Nalanda University was established by Shakraditya of Gupta dynasty in modern Bihar during early 5th century and flourished for 600 years till 12th century. Nalanda was the world’s first university to have residential quarters for both students and teachers. It also had large public lecture halls. Students from countries like Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey came to study in this university.
            The library of this university was the largest library of the ancient world and had thousands of volumes of manuscripts on various subjects like grammar, logic, literature, astrology, astronomy, and medicine. The library complex was called Dharmaganja, and had three large buildings: the Ratnasagara, the Ratnadadhi, and the Ratnaranjaka. Ratnadadhi was nine stories tall and stored the most sacred manuscripts including the Prajnaparamita Sutra and the Samajguhya. In 2010, the parliament of India passed a bill approving the plans to restore the ancient Nalanda University as a modern Nalanda International University dedicated for post-graduate research. Many East Asian countries including China, Singapore and Japan have come forward to fund the construction of this revived Nalanda University.
            Vikramasila University in present day Bihar
            Ikramaśīla University was one of the two most important centres of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nālandā University. Vikramaśīla was established by King Dharmapala (783 to 820) in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nālandā. Atisha, the renowned pandit, is sometimes listed as a notable abbot.
            Vikramashila (village Antichak, district Bhagalpur, Bihar) is located at about 50 km east of Bhagalpur and about 13 km north-east of Kahalgaon, a railway station on Bhagalpur-Sahebganj section of Eastern Railway.
            It gave direct competition to Nalanda University with over 100 teachers and over 1000 students listed in this University. This university was well known for its specialized training on the subject of Tantra (Tantrism). One of the most popular graduates from this University was Atiśa Dipankara, a founder of the Sharma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism who also revived the Buddhism in Tibet.
            Vallabhi University in present day Saurashtra, Gujarat
            Vallabhi University was established in Saurashtra of modern Gujarat at around 6th century and it flourished for 600 years till 12th century. Chinese traveler Itsing who visited this university during the 7th century describes it as a great center of learning. Gunamati and Sthiramati, the two famous Buddhist scholars are said to have graduated from this University. This University was popular for its training in secular subjects and students from all over the country came to study in this University. Because of its high quality of education, graduates of this University were given higher executive posts.
            Pushpagiri University in present day Odisha
            Pushpagiri University was established in ancient Kalinga kingdom (modern day Odisha) and was spread across Cuttack and Jajpur districts. It was established in 3rd century and flourished for the next 800 years till 11th century. The university campus was spread across three adjoining hills – Lalitgiri, Ratnagiri and Udayagiri. This was one of the most prominent centers of higher education in ancient India along with the universities of Takshashila, Nalanda and Vikramashila. The Chinese traveler Xuanzang (Huien Tsang) visited this university in 639 CE. Lalitgiri is said to have been commissioned by early 2nd century BCE itself and is the oldest Buddhist establishments in the world. Recently a few images of Emperor Ashoka have been discovered here, and it has been suggested that the Pushpagiri University was established by Emperor Ashoka himself.
            Odantapuri University in present day Bihar
            Odantapuri, also called Odantapura or Uddandapura, was a Buddhist vihara in what is now Bihar, India. It was established by King Gopala of the Pala dynasty in the 7th century. It is considered the second oldest of India’s universities and was situated in Magadh. Recently it is known as the Bihar Sharif (Headquarters of Nalanda District). Acharya Sri Ganga of Vikramashila had been a student here. According to the Tibetan records there were about 12,000 students at Odantapuri. Odantpuri was situated at a mountain called Hiranya Prabhat Parvat and the bank of the river Panchanan.
            In a Tibetan history of the Kalachakra tantra called dpal dus kyi ‘khor lo’i zab pa dang rgya che ba’i dam pa’i chos byung ba’i tshul legs par bshad pa ngo mtshar dad pa’i shing rta, by the Sakya master Jamgon Amye Zhab (1597–1659) (‘jam mgon a myes zhabs ngag dbang kun dga’ bsod nams), it is mentioned that Odantapuri was administered by “Sendhapas,” the Tibetan referent for Sri Lankan Theravadins.
            A number of monasteries grew up during the Pala period in ancient Bengal and Magadha. According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Vikramashila, the premier university of the era; Nalanda, past its prime but still illustrious, Somapura Mahavihara, Odantapuri, and Jaggadala.
            The five monasteries formed a network; “all of them were under state supervision” and there existed “a system of co-ordination among them… it seems from the evidence that the different seats of Buddhist learning that functioned in eastern India under the Pala were regarded together as forming a network, an interlinked group of institutions,” and it was common for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them.
            Somapura University in present day Bangladesh
            Somapura Mahavihara was established by Dharmapala of Pala dynasty during late 8th century in Bengal and flourished for 400 years till 12th century. The University spread over 27 acres of land of which the main complex was 21 acres was one of the largest of its kind. It was a major center of learning for Buddha Dharma (Buddhism), Jina Dharma (Jainism) and Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism). Even today one can find ornamental terracotta on its outer walls depicting the influence of these three traditions. Other Ancient Universities The above-mentioned list is not a complete list of ancient Indian universities either. Dharmapala of Pala dynasty alone is said to have established 50 mega learning centers across his kingdom, and they have been as huge and as popular as the ones mentioned above. For instance, the Munshiganj Vihara discovered as recently as Marh 23, 2013 in Bengal is said to have been established in 9th century and was home to 8000 students who came from faraway places like China, Tibet, Nepal and Thailand.
            Destruction of Ancient Indian Universities by Invaders
            Many of the universities mentioned above came to an end around 12th century. The universities like Nalanda, Vikramashila etc were destroyed around this period during the Muslim invasion of India by the fanatic Bakhtiyar Khilji from Turkey in 1193 CE. The great library of Nalanda University was destroyed, ransacked and burnt by the soldiers of Khilji’s army and it is said that it was so vast that the manuscripts kept burning for three months.
            In-numerous number of ancient Indian manuscripts carefully preserved for thousands of years were destroyed in this fire. Thousands of monks in the University were burnt alive and beheaded by Khilji’s army.
            Destruction of these centers of learning at Nalanda and other places across northern India was responsible for the demise of ancient Indian scientific thought in mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, and anatomy.
            https://pparihar.com/2016/10/02/ancient-indian-universities/
            Not in the West.
            http://www.sanskritimagazine.com/india/india-is-not-underdeveloped/ (India was not underdeveloped)
            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QNAt5cLuHd8
            These being a scrape out of a tonne load which are YET TO BE SEEN AND REDISCOVERED. Remember that. This is a flake out of less than 7% of all the known texts being only read let alone interpreted and translated with more than 10000 texts per year being rediscovered. This only adds to the above 93% of all only the known information which is yet to even be seen. Without India there is no West.
            This is just a scrapeful of a few of the considerable number of achievements made by India. This is an extreme few out of how much is being realised as having an Indian origin. More and more is emerging. It is a work in progress. It is finally being made known. That is what happens when people lie about history. They pay for it later. Most of the west has been built on the back of Indians achievements in which most inventions and innovations are in fact re-inventions and re-innovations.
            Most ideas are not original. Especially that of Europe. A lot is going to emerge and a lot has to be unlearnt.
            Now that you’ve discovered that you can lie. You can take the time to understand that all that you’ve said has been debunked. This is only going to be debunked even more in time.
            What has been mentioned in here is only an inkling and a few subjects. This is barely even a taster. It isn’t even the start. The Indians contributed more than any other civilisation in all the subjects. It may sound odd, especially to the Eurocentric mind but it is becoming quite evident. Be it the over emphasised Greeks, and Babylonians to the Chinese, Romans and the West itself (at least that which is known in which further rediscoveries shall validate this further).
            Here is an example:
            Two British researchers challenged the conventional history of mathematics in June when they reported having evidence that the infinite series, one of the core concepts of calculus, was first developed by Indian mathematicians in the 14th century. They also believe they can show how the advancement may have been passed along to Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who are credited with independently developing the concept some 250 years later.
            “The notation is quite different, but it’s very easy to recognize the series as we understand it today,” says historian of mathematics George Gheverghese Joseph of the University of Manchester, who conducted the research with Dennis Almeida of the University of Exeter. “It was expressed verbally in the form of instructions for how to construct a mathematical equation.”
            Historians have long known about the work of the Keralese mathematician Madhava and his followers, but Joseph says that no one has yet firmly established how the work of Indian scholars concerning the infinite series might have directly influenced mathematicians like Newton and Leibniz.
            Joseph and Almeida, who spent three years digging through ancient Indian texts and Vatican archives, believe Jesuit priests brought scientific knowledge from southern India to Western Europe. The priests were missionaries in India in the mid-16th century. They learned local languages and scientific practices and sent meticulous reports back to Europe. However Calculus may be far older in the region.
            Do note the last paragraph. Indian texts in the Vatican archives where the local scientific practices were learnt and were reported back to Europe. In Europe alone there are a lot lot more Indian texts. These are yet to be seen. Not to mention only 7% of the knowledge found in all the known Indic texts in India having been only seen let alone read and translated. Additionally 1000 to 10000 texts per year are being rediscovered making it even fewer texts being known. So it sholudn’t be surprising if most of what you hold dear isn’t your own. This isn’t the only example. This is prevalent regarding every subject in every single field regarding India. You think you never lied. It seems you’ve been brought up through a lot of Ku Klux Klan Americanised education. The negative effects of Imperialism in the 19th Century have created an unprecedented form of Imperial blindness which is only beginning to be shed now.
            Try and convey your frustrations to any unbiased scholars (if you can find any considering there are many still trying to peddle good lies), and you don’t need a good Eurocentric patent to prove that something has been genuinely made by someone/somewhere. It should become evident to you that it can be used to lie and misappropriate lies through authentic looking sheets. Also do note that this date is a conservative date as Calculus was already used before Sumeria existed.
            The Europeans so to speak ‘’borrowed’’ and conveniently forgot to mention the fact as to where it truly originated from, thus intentionally misleading people to believe that they made it. When in truth they didn’t. Typical though isn’t it.
            Also the concept of flight (despite still being investigated) may have been rediscovered 8 years before the Wright Brothers itself. A 1974 newspaper mentioned it also. Albeit with less evidence than today.
            http://www.sanskritimagazine.com/history/vedic-vimanas-8-years-before-the-wright-brothers/#comment-46464
            Also the Minnesota Alumni Weekly, Volume 27, Number 3, July 1927. Edited by Leland F. Leland have already validated the Agastya Samhita. Yet this silent fact hasn’t been known to the wider public until recently. Discoveries and rediscoveries are continuously being made. However, having been written in 1927, despite the methods having been studied, the dates are inaccurate as Agastya lived much further back. The prejudice as well as lack of understanding and knowledge of the Antiquity had not given the proper ages. This all predating the Wright Brothers
            http://www.sanskritimagazine.com/vedic_science/indian-chemist-discovers-secrets-agastya-samhita-1927/
            Considering the climate back then and even now, it is nowhere near as simple as linearly considering all that is true to be revealed. A multitude of factors keeps the truth out of sight or delays its emergence. Fortunately it is now.
            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xmogKGCmclE

          • C K G Gulia

            ‘’Due to the legacy of colonialism, the exploitation of which was ideologically justified through a doctrine of racial superiority, the contributions of non-European civilizations were often ignored, or, as George Ghevarughese Joseph argued, even distorted, in that they were often misattributed as European.” Dr. David Gray.

          • C K G Gulia

            There is much much more however. Needless to say.

  • Aspy

    Glad that this myth regarding Islam’s contributions in the field of Science, Arts, Mathematics, etc; etc; has finally been brought to light by an academic of the stature of Dr.N.S.Rajaram.

  • Harish Kumar

    As Sri Aurobindo says muslims borrowed mathematics from Indians and science from the Greeks; they had no achievement of themselves. The real achievement of the muslims was preserving the Greek classics and Aristotelian science. The Islamic Golden Age was inspired by the Greek Classics and is thus the Greek Golden Age!

    • Indian

      The islamic golden age ended when Persia and Persian learning was destroyed by hardcore Sunni loving ijtehad hating TRIBAL HORDES ( who were incidentally muslims) took control of the vast lands and men of Persia…..

    • UncleVladdi

      Except that islam had first actually CAUSED the so-called ‘Dark Ages’ by destroying the existing trade routes between the West and China and India (which had been established by Marco Polo)!

      Islam invented absolutely NOTHING. It simply violently invaded and enslaved many previously Greek, Christian countries, like Egypt, Syria, Libya, Iraq (and India and Iran,) destroyed them, and then, centuries later, pretended to rediscover their inventions.

      Islam is a barbaric, might-makes-right-based, predatory parasite. It stifles thought, invents nothing, makes nothing, and does nothing but enslave and live off the works of all the civilized people it attacks.

      Arabic “culture” is one of lies and liars, where one pretends one has done something, merely by having stated one intends to do it. That this has resulted in Arabs actually inventing nothing in the past is also proven by how they have invented nothing in the present, either – in all the Arab and muslim lands, there have been absolutely no Nobel Prize winners, compared to the Jews, whose population is less than 1% of the Arabs (and much less than that of all the other non-Arab muslim countries) who have won so many.

      • Just_me_and_God

        Polo was born between September 15 and 16, 1254, in Venice

        • UncleVladdi

          Yeah, and the muslim Turks only started invading Europe (Romania, Serbia and the Balkans) in the early 1400s.

          General dates:

          … In 732 AD the Muslim Army which was moving on Paris was defeated and turned back at Tours, France, by Charles Martell. By then, the muzzies had taken over 2/3rds of Christendom in the Byzantine Middle East.

          But they kept at it.

          …in 1571 AD the Muslim Army/Navy was defeated by the Italians and Austrians as they tried to cross the Mediterranean to attack Southern Europe in the Battle of Lapanto.

          ….in 1683 AD the Turkish Muslim Army, attacking Eastern Europe, was finally defeated in the Battle of Vienna by German and Polish Christian Armies.

          • Just_me_and_God

            Thanks, that answered my questions.

          • UncleVladdi

            De nada. Marco Polo was only free to explore the East thanks to Charles Martell. And Christopher Columbus was only able to (re-)discover America (originally named after the Italian, Amerigo) thanks to the Spanish Reconquista of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella’s being successful in kicking the muslims out of Spain.

          • TruthWFree

            The Ottoman Muslims (the last caliphate) were defeated at the Battle of Vienna on 9/11/1683…coincidence???

          • UncleVladdi

            Of course not! Muslims never accept defeat, and so later “continued” the fight from the exact same date!

    • Syriac Christians and Jews under Muslim rule preserved those works–not the Muslims themselves.

  • Harish Kumar

    The only thing the muslim rulers in built were harems with women from all over the world !

    • Just_me_and_God

      SLAVE Women, for the sexual pleasure of the MudScum elite!

    • mjm

      i thought a muslim ruler built the taij mahal?

      • Kjetil

        yeah. the world’s biggest tomb stone.

        • mjm

          so his statement is wrong.

          idk, but the great pyramid might be a bigger tombstone?

          • Kjetil

            ok – I stand corrected. The Taj Mahal, even if not the biggest, is an extremely big tombstone. So, what is your point, apart from digressing the subject?

          • mjm

            i’m saying it is a silly statement to say they built nothing. as for the golden age of islam, it is well documented. algebra, or just google the golden age of islam: https://explorable.com/islamic-medicine

            my larger point is it is silly to try to re-write history. plus there are so many reasons to question islam and its teachings and actions of today. this is like the muslims always bringing up the crusades. history is fun, and those who don’t know it are doomed to repeat it, but this is just, what is the word i’m looking for? silly.

          • Kjetil

            It is not “well documented” that islamic scholars invented i.e. algebra, except for unsubstantiated claims. IMHO, what created the myth about the islamic Golden Age, is the how the arabic/islamic rule for centuries successfully hindered open and direct relations between the West and the none-islamic East. All communications were controlled by, and had to go through, islamic authorities.

            Also, the stories about how wonderful islamic Spain was supposed to have been is also relied almost solely on accounts made by muslim scribes. There is very little archaeological findings to support those stories, despite for serious digging been made all along the 20th century. Archaeologists have found countless findings of the Roman and Vandal era, but extremely few related to the muslim rule of Spain (http://www.newenglishreview.org/custpage.cfm/frm/140210/sec_id/140210).

            The myth of the islamic Golden Age is therefore an example of the fact that history is written by the conquerors, not by the conquered. Now this is finally being corrected.

            History, as many other sciences, is subject to constant research. It is also a science often used to promote and support political, religious, ethnic and nationalistic viewpoints. This is why history will always change and we should never stop asking ourselves whether established facts from the past still hold today. This is also why it is never silly to question history.

          • mjm

            “history is written by the conquerors, not by the conquered.” no shit. the very fact that they ruled so much of the world makes it a golden age for islam. you are just like the muslims. you exaggerate to support your agenda. of course the rule of spain isn’t nearly as rosy or as long as the muslims try to make it out to be. or their rule of jerusalem or the ottomans. but that doesn’t mean there wasn’t a gold age of islam. and it went by the waste side like all other golden ages.

            but why not focus on what is happening today. isn’t that much more important? the muslims aren’t going to believe your accounts of history and you won’t believe theirs. or why not explore islamic doctrine?

          • Kjetil

            The article is about the claims of great islamic discoveries during the golden age, so is the topic of our discussion. I really don’t understand why you keep on bitching about people discussing the subject…

          • mjm

            maybe i like to bitch. or maybe i just made a comment about a stupid statement and you felt like bitching about the taij mahal. why i don’t know.

            i still say why not focus on what is happening today. if you want history and today, here:

            http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-36439092

          • Bihari

            For him successful mass murders and golden age are the same. It is difficult to argue with such a retard.

          • Bihari

            If successful genocide counts as a golden age then really it was. Should have been a bloody age, but given that we are in the presence of a great scholar like you lets define it your way. Ideally golden age should be an age of intellectual progress, but then who are we to question your greatness.

          • mjm

            lol. genocide and intellectual progress aren’t necessarily mutually exclusive. one of the reasons the muslims had a golden age is because they expanded quickly and copied and built on others success. that often includes mass murder. just like the age of exploration for the europeans lead to great advancements in seafaring, it also lead to the death of millions of natives in the western hemisphere.

          • Bihari

            wow ! You guys never cease to amaze me. Conflating two very different human endeavours, of which one has usually resulted in the persecution of scientists. Dude its too late to send your CV to Hitler/Pol Pot/Stalin, but give Al-Baghdadi a shot. Also, please send me a mssg when a Nobel prize is awarded for the destruction of Palmyra and genocide of Yazidis.

  • bollywood only copy except few

    when you compared hindus with jews you forgot they didnt have nehru and gandhi.

    they formed a jewish secular state and dont tolerate islam and only put forward a fake mask of secuarism.

    they know their enemy and Indian also kniow their enemy but secularism and nehru gandhi are responsible e for present state of india.

    they dont have communists licking up china. thy are only fighting arabs and India is fight islam, christian missionaries and draviadan politics fake divide and communism.

  • m p

    Secular Jinnah,who respected all religions, is another noble myth. It is created based on 1 free-to-go-to-temple speech,made under pressure on 11th Aug 1947, but what about 100s of actions & speeches attacking other religions.

    Examples:-

    1) Jinnah’s Ladke Lenge Pakistan speech on Aug 14 1948 which triggered Great Kolkata Killing & Noakhali genocide.

    2) After making 1 free-speech, Jinnah make another speech on 19 Feb 1948 on radio Australia introducing Pakistan: “One part of country is in west & another in east. You will ask how such a country is possible? ISLAM makes it possible”

    3) Wipe out entire linguistic & cultural heritage of new country by wrapping it with Islam. New country has an Islamic flag, Islamic name, Islamic emblem, Islamic National Language, Islamic History, & Islamic capital city; Thus, leaving no room for non-Islamic.

    • cool

      actually Jinnah had written in a letter to the governor general which states Sikhs have to leave Pakistan (p. 175, Muslim league attack – Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947).

  • ChanderS

    Very informative article full of facts. Except on Indiafacts, nowhere we get to read such articles.
    Muslims ruled India for over 1000 years but show one University they created. Just one. They burnt down Nalanda, Vikramsila, Taxila universities that were thriving before their invasion of India. They only built Mosks after demolishing temples, looting the temple gold and persecuting natives’.

    • Ki Sopo Nyono

      Ah, yes, indeed!

  • cool

    The science of farce – http://www.dawn.com/news/1083758

  • Sree Charan R

    While there are many Truths in this article; some of my thoughts–
    1)There is no good reliable justification to compare Israel and India, in terms of Scientific Achievements; and this statement can be easily verified when one looks into the history of Israel (true history, not the distorted-chauvinist one).The uncritical comparison of Jews and Hindus is irreverent to truth.
    2)There is “Vedic Science”–culmination of Scientific knowledge gathered by ancient Indians in subjects such as Psychology,Cosmology,Mental arithmetic,Architecture,Aeronautics and other areas.May be calling it “vedic” misinterprets it; but “vedic” does not mean it is related to Religion, instead it simply indicates a particular historical period. We should understand that making extravagant claim is part of Science today, whether one likes it or not(though I am not supporting this); but they can only be dismissed with Facts, not by rhetorical discussions.
    3)Firstly, there is no scientific reason to believe in anything such as “laws” of nature( which is nothing more than a theological construct so essential to Western Universality, especially when there are reasons for believing in “laws of nature” in post Crusade Christian theology, rather than a Scientific thought).Scientists do build models,but models are fallible, and acknowledged as such, unlike laws.
    4)Just to criticize Islam, we need not to arrogantly establish few “theories”, rather we need to argue about “why?”.Islam– though not as a ‘religion’, but as community–has contributed a lot to Medical Science, Astronomy in Middle ages(which is definitely inspired by Indian Science, but that does not undermine their ingenuity.) Islam,however violent it may be(and was),curiously unlike in any other part of the world, has ‘encouraged’ intellectual activity in India, though they are only few cases.But acknowledging them makes us understand “Peaceful Islam” better.
    5)Hindu(this includes Jain, Buddha and Sikh too) scholarship and investment in Science continued till 17th century continuously–a fact that author may know better than anyone else (specially in Kerala, Southern Tamilnadu and Maharashtra); though they happened in “non-Islamic” areas.And even during the modern times, Hindus have invested a lot to Science–though their contributions are forgotten in obscurity, like any other Indian Achievement.Hence the statement ( an often repeated “slogan”) that Hindus,have invested more in “Spirituality”(whatever that means, in the modern misinterpreted form) than Science is outright Falsehood.And can be verified when one looks into the Facts.(My case is not to support my argument through few statistical jugglery, bu to invest in Truth.)
    A relevant paper, by C.K.Raju, a well-known Mathematician and Historian–
    http://ckraju.net/papers/Islam-and-Science.pdf

    Note:Just my understanding, corrections/criticisms are okayyyy !!!

    • Note:Just my understanding, corrections/criticisms are okayyyy !!!

      Not just okay – essential. The difference between science and faith.

      Even if you’ve gotten some of the details wrong – or at least, not everything you say is in accordance with my own limited knowledge – your last sentence shows that you have the essentials right.

      All models are wrong : some models are useful.

      http://stats.stackexchange.com/questions/57407/what-is-the-meaning-of-all-models-are-wrong-but-some-are-useful

      • UncleVladdi

        Pst! Google for Mark McCutcheon and the Final Theory (of Everything)!

        😉

    • Samir

      A really worth Note to this good essay… Thank you sir

    • UncleVladdi

      Re: “Scientists do build models,but models are fallible unlike laws.And hence, one cannot criticize Islam for ‘not believing’ in “laws”, or that ugly ‘reason’, which in itself is ill-defined(i.e., in the modern sense,that ‘they’ exist to, basically, satisfy our intellectual ego,not to find truths about Nature).

      Actually, that HAS all been winnowed down to one final, universal, unified field(s of science) theory. There is a single Law and the “theory” is a simple and proven fact – one so simple a 3-yr-old child can understand it (Google Mark McCutcheon).

      4)Just to blame Islam, there is no need to establish few “theories”, but rather to argue about “why?” part of the story.Islam– though not as ‘religion’, but as community–has contributed a lot to Medical Science, Astronomy in Middle ages–history of this is well recorded, (which is inspired by Indian Science, but that does not undermine their true ingenuity.) Islam,however violent it may be(and was),curiously unlike in any other part of the world, has ‘encouraged’ intellectual activity in India, though they are only few cases.But acknowledging them makes us understand “Peaceful Islam” better.”

      THERE IS NO “PEACEFUL” ISLAM!!!

      Islam has contributed absolutely nothing to medical science and astronomy – how could it, since it’s “Perfect” Qur’an asserts that the stars circle the Earth and are used to shoot lasers at the approaching ‘Satans!’? The Qur’an also insists the sky is made of lead, and that the continents are held down and in place by mountains. The sun sets in a dirty pool of water, and … the earth is FLAT.

      Islam invented absolutely NOTHING. It simply violently invaded and enslaved many previously Greek, Christian countries, like Egypt, Syria, Libya, Iraq (and India and Iran,) destroyed them, and then, centuries later, pretended to rediscover their inventions.

      Islam is a barbaric, might-makes-right-based, predatory parasite. It stifles thought, invents nothing, makes nothing, and does nothing but enslave and live off the works of all the civilized people it attacks.

      Arabic “culture” is one of lies and liars, where one pretends one has done something, merely by having stated one intends to do it. That this has resulted in Arabs actually inventing nothing in the past is also proven by how they have invented nothing in the present, either – in all the Arab and muslim lands, there have been absolutely no Nobel Prize winners, compared to the Jews, whose population is less than 1% of the Arabs (and much less than that of all the other non-Arab muslim countries) who have won so many.

      You’ve heard Muslims invented the zero, right?

      Actually, the zero, which is often attributed to Muslims, and what we know today as “Arabic numerals” did not originate in Arabia, but in pre-Islamic India.

      They preserved Greek philosophy when Christian Europe had thrown it away, correct? No.

      Aristotle’s work was preserved in Arabic not initially by Muslims at all, but by Christians such as the fifth century priest Probus of Antioch, who introduced Aristotle to the Arabic-speaking world. Another Christian, Huneyn ibn-Ishaq (809-873), translated many works by Aristotle, Galen, Plato and Hippocrates into Syriac. His son then translated them into Arabic. The Syrian Christian Yahya ibn ‘Adi (893-974) also translated works of philosophy into Arabic, and wrote one of his own, The Reformation of Morals. His student, another Christian named Abu ‘Ali ‘Isa ibn Zur’a (943-1008), also translated Aristotle and others from Syriac into Arabic.

      Aristotle’s philosophies would be prohibited under Islam; Muhammad most likely would have beheaded him. He stands for everything Islam is against. Ayn Rand wrote this of Aristotle: “Aristotle’s universe is the universe of science. The physical world, in his view, is not a shadowy projection controlled by a divine dimension, but an autonomous, self-sufficient realm. It is an orderly, intelligible, natural realm, open to the mind of man.” These very ideas are anathema to Islam; they are blasphemy.

      But what about medicine? The Muslims were great innovators in the medical sciences, weren’t they? Here again it was non-Muslims in the Islamic world who were doing the heavy lifting:

      The first Arabic-language medical treatise was written by a Christian priest and translated into Arabic by a Jewish doctor in 683. The first hospital was founded in Baghdad during the Abbasid caliphate — not by a Muslim, but a Nestorian Christian. A pioneering medical school was founded at Gundeshapur in Persia — by Assyrian Christians.

      The bottom line: the inventions and discoveries attributed to the Muslim world were actually stolen from conquered peoples.

      As for the “why” you ask about – WHY is islam antithetical to science? Because it was modeled on the life, words and actions of a literal psycho-path, Muhammad. The word is a Greek one, which directly translates as “Thought-Killer.”

      Islam’s Qur’an officially discourages independent thinking:

      “O ye who believe! Ask not questions about things which if made plain to you, may cause you trouble… Some people before you did ask such questions, and on that account lost their faith.” (Quran. 5:101-102)

      Capisce?

      😉

      Muslims aren’t allowed to challenge whatever Muhammad said (33:36).

      “It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, has indeed strayed into a plain error.”

      And they must obey his every word:

      33:21. Moe is the Perfect Man, the Perfect Example of Humanity for All Mankind. TO be imitated and emulated.

      4:65. “But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full Submission.”

      8:20. “O you who believe! Obey Allâh and His Messenger, and turn not away from him (i.e. Messenger Muhammad ) while you are hearing.”

      And exactly what is his Message? What are they commanded to do?

      9:123. “O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you, and know that Allâh is with those who are the Al-Muttaqûn” (the pious – see V.2:2).

      Are they allowed to interpret the message differently, to choose which parts to believe, obey and/or reject?

      2:85 … “Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject the rest? Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment….”

      Sura 4:77: Offensive eternal War is mandatory for them, because both the good and the bad come from allah:

      Muslims have only two options: to go to War for allah, or to go to Hell: 9.38 & 39.

      The “original religion” of Islam, is Jihad:

      From:

      http://www.quranexplorer.com/Hadith/English/Hadith/dawud/023.3455.html

      Wages (Kitab Al-Ijarah)

      Dawud :: Book 23 : Hadith 3455

      Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar:

      “I heard the Apostle of Allah, (peace_be_upon_him) say: When you enter into the inah transaction, hold the tails of oxen, are pleased with agriculture, and give up conducting jihad (struggle in the way of Allah), Allah will make disgrace prevail over you, and will not withdraw it until you return to your original religion.”

      Jihad is preferred over peaceful commerce and agriculture as an economic model. Get a clue: 3:151, 8:12, 39, 57, 60, 65, 67; 9:5, 29, 38, 39, 111, 120, 123; 33:26, 27; 47:4; 49:15; 59:2, 13; 61:10-13; Sahih Bukhari 1.7.331 & 4.52.220.

      Surah Al-Anfal 8.39 commands Muslims to wage war against pagans until resistance ceases and only Allah is worshiped. Surah At-Taubah 9.29 commands Muslims to wage war against people with scriptural religions until they are subjugated and submit to annual demands for extortion. Both commands are without chronological or geographic limits. They are permanent in duration and global in scope.

      Muslims are admonished in Surah At-Taubah -.38-39, that they will suffer a “painful torment” if they do not join the Jihad. Muslims are promised, in Surah At-Taubah 9.111 and Surah As-Saff 10-12 that he will admit them to his celestial bordello if they join the Jihad.

      Jihad is the Muslim’s get out of Hell free card! If he does not play that card, he meets Allah with a defect: hypocrisy. (Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 4 #2763)

      The minimum Jihad quota is once each year. If Jihad is not performed in a year when it was possible, all with knowledge of the imperative are sinners, liable to eternal damnation. (Reliance of the Traveller O9.1, Hedaya 2.140-141, The Book of Jihad pg. 18)

      Muslims are commanded, in Surah Al-Anfal 8.57, to treat vanquished foes harshly so as to strike terror into those behind them. They are commanded in 8.60 to maximize the power of their army so as to terrify thereby prospective victims.

      Muslims are promised, in Surah At-Taubah 9.120, that acts of terrorism will be rewarded with extra credit towards an upgrade in the celestial bordello.

      AGAIN: Muslims are warned, in Surah Al-Baqarah 2.85, that they cannot select the parts of the Qur’an they like and reject the rest.

      ….

      From The Hedaya, Volume II, Book XXI, Chapter 2, P.#687-89:

      *The testimony is not admissible of free-thinkers, if they avow their sentiments:*

      “THE evidence of a person who openly inveighs against the companions of the prophet and their disciples is not admissible, because of his apparent want of integrity. — It is otherwise, however, where a person conceals his sentiments in regard to them, because in such case the want of integrity is not apparent.”

      i.e: YOU CAN ONLY CRITICIZE MOE’S COMPANIONS, OR EVEN THEIR DISCIPLES, IN PRIVATE, AND BE SEEN AS HONEST, IN ISLAM; SPEAKING OUT IN PUBLIC FOR WHAT YOU BELIEVE MEANS YOU “HAVE NO INTEGRITY!” THIS MEANS SOMEONE INCAPABLE OF LYING, OR OF KEEPING OPINIONS QUIET, IS HELD TO BE DISHONEST! (INCAPABLE OF CONCEALING ANY CRIMES)! ISLAM: IMAGE OVER REALITY, FICTION OVER FACT! LIES OVER TRUTH! HONESTY IS DESCRIBED AS INSANITY IN SHARIA!

      ;-(

      • TruthWFree

        Thank you. Good post and in line with my studies of Islam.

        • UncleVladdi

          You’re quite welcome!